Monthly Archives: April 2013



Springtime in Oklahoma brings more than just severe weather. It also serves up ugly reminders of broken treaties between the US government and Native people. Most elementary schools in Oklahoma conduct re-enactments of the Oklahoma Land Run of 1889, but increasingly, educators are re-thinking this yearly event.

1 Comment

Posted by on April 25, 2013 in CATV 47 Blog


The story of “The Great Race” as told by a Cheyenne Elder

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 12, 2013 in CHEYENNE LANGUAGE


5 Cheyenne Hymns

Listen to 5 Cheyenne Hymns.

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 12, 2013 in CATV 47 Blog


Arapaho names for body parts

XML File of names for body parts in Arapaho, displayed via XSL

Word Category English Arapaho
BODY PARTS abdomen/exterior stomach/midriff wonót
BODY PARTS adam’s apple
BODY PARTS ankle wonót/wonó’
BODY PARTS anus bé3it, besóho
BODY PARTS aorta hinii‘i3 (?) (DK1997:155)
BODY PARTS arch noox(e)yeihtoo
BODY PARTS arm bénes
BODY PARTS artery be’íb/be’íwo’
BODY PARTS aureola
BODY PARTS back wokóoó
BODY PARTS back of hand wokóuu3éé3oo
BODY PARTS beard bííxohko’ónoo; biisétino (Hayden 1873)
BODY PARTS big toe béés(i)sé’
BODY PARTS bladder hinís
BODY PARTS blood be’
BODY PARTS blood clot hinót
BODY PARTS body beténeyooo, hineníteeyéí
BODY PARTS boil béci’óócoo; co’óócoo
BODY PARTS bone hix
BODY PARTS brain betééc
BODY PARTS breast bé3en
BODY PARTS breasts, region between hiscóo
BODY PARTS breast milk be3enec [= breast water]
BODY PARTS buttocks besóonó
BODY PARTS buttocks híseicíí
BODY PARTS calf ci’í3
BODY PARTS canine tooth héétookú3 [= big tooth]
BODY PARTS cheek becé’i’óó
BODY PARTS chest bescóoó’, béé’céso’
BODY PARTS area between breasts hiscóó
BODY PARTS chin wotóhko’
BODY PARTS clitoris tónohoo
BODY PARTS collarbone beihóoó
BODY PARTS cowlick; hair whirl on top of head neyóooxét [same as tornado, whirlwind]
BODY PARTS crown of head 3oontééc
BODY PARTS dimple héetoh’oxko’ónoo’
BODY PARTS ear wonotóno’
BODY PARTS ear wax hiinoxótonóuní-noo (AI)
BODY PARTS eczema ceecíí’i’éí-noo (AI) (face)
BODY PARTS eczema ceecíí’éíhi-noo (AI) (body)
BODY PARTS elbow bétson
BODY PARTS eye besíiisé’
BODY PARTS eyeball, white of nóók-3eitóok
BODY PARTS eyebrows neníisío’no, beníiisío’
BODY PARTS eye discharge beiyok
BODY PARTS eyelashes neníísío’no
BODY PARTS eyelids
BODY PARTS face betóóxebío’
BODY PARTS fat niinén
BODY PARTS feces/excrement bee/bééno
BODY PARTS finger 3éé3oo
BODY PARTS fingernail wó’ox
BODY PARTS flesh Schoolcraft 1853:448
BODY PARTS foot wó’oo3
BODY PARTS forearm(?) woce’ot
BODY PARTS forefinger(?) 3ííhoho
BODY PARTS forehead có’oú’oo
BODY PARTS gall hinííhic
BODY PARTS goatee biisétino
BODY PARTS goosebumps
BODY PARTS hair – body
BODY PARTS hair – head béí3e’ééno (pl)
BODY PARTS hair – worn in bundle over forehead hicei3o’oo (K1983:130) [< hi-ce’-i3e’ee = 3-round/spherical/hair ?]
BODY PARTS hand béecét
BODY PARTS hand, back of wokóuu-3éé3oo [= hand's back]
BODY PARTS head hookuhú’ee
BODY PARTS heart bétee
BODY PARTS heel betíít
BODY PARTS hip wóce’ók, woco’ok
BODY PARTS hives ceecii’ínoo’oo-noo (AI)
BODY PARTS incisor tooth béíci3
BODY PARTS index finger yiis3oho’o
BODY PARTS index finger 3ííhoho
BODY PARTS intestines 3ooxuu (pl); 3ei(i)se3oo
BODY PARTS intestines hi-nou-te3ee (?) (DK1997:155)
BODY PARTS jaw wotohko’, beictoo’ (?)
BODY PARTS joint ceníí3ise-’ [= it goes inside (s.t. else)] (II)
BODY PARTS kidney betíí3i3
BODY PARTS knee (be)ce’éíteyei (Hayden gives be- form)
BODY PARTS kneecap bece’eiteyei-hix (Hayden 1873:333) [=one's knee bone]
BODY PARTS knuckle ce(i)’-3éé3oo [= round finger/hand]
BODY PARTS leg wó’oo3
BODY PARTS ligament (bone to bone)
BODY PARTS lip béses
BODY PARTS little finger hók(e)cii’-3éé3oo, héces-3éé3oo [= llittle finger]
BODY PARTS liver his
BODY PARTS lung hííkon
BODY PARTS marrow seyóot
BODY PARTS menses neníi3éíhi-noo (AI – I am m.)
BODY PARTS menses beteeno (pl); beetee-t (K1983:15)
BODY PARTS middle finger neehíí3ei’-3éé3oo [= middle finger]
BODY PARTS molar tooth bééxookú3 [= big tooth]
BODY PARTS mouth bétii
BODY PARTS mucus/snot be’ii
BODY PARTS muscle 3éi3
BODY PARTS mustache bíísetínoo
BODY PARTS nape of neck wóto’-óno
BODY PARTS nasal hair biisí’o-no
BODY PARTS navel bé3(in)
BODY PARTS neck bésonon-o
BODY PARTS nerve bíístoot-ono
BODY PARTS nipple níinéét-ono, bé3en
BODY PARTS nose béí’is
BODY PARTS nostril tóneenííwoo-no, teenii3oo(?)
BODY PARTS nostril béteeníí
BODY PARTS nostril betoniiwoo (Curtis)
BODY PARTS palate/roof of mouth wonóu’o
BODY PARTS palm se(i)’-3éé3oo [flat hand]
BODY PARTS palm heté’éín-3éé3oo [= pushed-in-face hand?]
BODY PARTS penis béí3oo bó’os
BODY PARTS pimple cé’i’oo
BODY PARTS pubic hair bíísiyoono (pl) (m); bíisohóóno (pl) (f)
BODY PARTS pupil of eye hinéntehe’
BODY PARTS pus ben
BODY PARTS ribs híícoo
BODY PARTS ring finger niixóónee-3éé3oo [= ??? Finger]
BODY PARTS saliva/spittle betóo3ét
BODY PARTS scalp bii3es
BODY PARTS scrotum kósoo
BODY PARTS skeleton 3ííkon [same as ghost]
BODY PARTS skin wonóx
BODY PARTS skull 3ííkon-ookuhu’ee [= ghost head]
BODY PARTS shin wóxos
BODY PARTS shoulder béce’éénoo
BODY PARTS shoulder hitéyei’ónin
BODY PARTS small toe héces(i)-sé’ [= little toe]
BODY PARTS stomach wóce’ót
BODY PARTS sole of foot se’-éíhtoo [= flat foot]
BODY PARTS spine wototóoy
BODY PARTS spinal cord hiti’iitoo
BODY PARTS sweat kóúwo’oot
BODY PARTS tears bíísiinookú’oo-noo (AI.1)
BODY PARTS temple hiníiité’
BODY PARTS tendon (muscle to bone) 3éi3/3éitó (pl)
BODY PARTS testicle be3éés
BODY PARTS thigh becóó
BODY PARTS thighbone nóúteeyóó
BODY PARTS throat beitóoó
BODY PARTS thumb bees-3éé3oo [= big finger]
BODY PARTS toe besé’
BODY PARTS toenail wó’ox
BODY PARTS toenail bese’eni(i)-wo’ox (Curtis) [= toe nail]
BODY PARTS tongue bei3ón
BODY PARTS tooth beici3
BODY PARTS underarm/armpit 3éi3é’
BODY PARTS upper arm béés-3eneeyóó [= big ???]
BODY PARTS urine séiit
BODY PARTS uvula/glottis hótoowkúútoot
BODY PARTS vagina hehéc
BODY PARTS vein be’íb
BODY PARTS vomit be3óot
BODY PARTS vulva beehééc
BODY PARTS wart be3ii3[iib]
BODY PARTS whiskers bíísetino (pl)
BODY PARTS windpipe Schoolcraft 1853:447
BODY PARTS wrist wonot/wono’
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS beaver testes niiseno (pl)
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo back fat nonii
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo ‘beard’ biix-óhko’on [= hairy chin]
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo hide héecén
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo hind leg toxú’oo3 (notoyeic) [= sharp leg]
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo hump ribs híiixóoon
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo short ribs DK1997:155 – probably the same
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo stomach part hiiyoot (?) (Hilger 46)
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS buffalo robe (from a cow) bíix-óu [= buffalo cow blanket]
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS eagle/bird tail hínookóó3
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS eagle/bird tail nii’éíhiin-ookóó3 (K1983:342) [= bird’s rump]
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS edible intestines/tripe no’oeyoono (pl)
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS fat on kidneys hookohoono (DK1997:155)
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS flesh next to the hide 3ebéx
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS hoof/dew claw wo’ox
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS hoof/dew claw hookéíhtoo
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS horn hiiníínsiinóó-’ (II) [=it has a horn]
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS manifold biisiwoo
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS manure/dung biihí3
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS rawhide koo’eiyoo’ [see word for mocassin soles]
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS tendons of neck hitiito (DK1997:124,155)
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS stomach/paunch liner bee3ii
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS tallow/fat niinén
SPECIAL ANIMAL PARTS white meat of hind leg (of buffalo) nookcoobe’ [= white thigh-LOC] ((DK1997:155)
BUFFALO herd híí3einóón
BUFFALO white buffalo nookúwuu (Salz) [nookuwou’u ?]
BUFFALO bull henéécee
BUFFALO red bull bo’onóókee [= red buffalo bull]
BUFFALO young bull woxo3ouu’ (DK1997:16,22,296)
BUFFALO young bull woxo3óú’u
BUFFALO cow bíí
BUFFALO young cow nónoonihíího’
BUFFALO young cow nónooni
BUFFALO calf woo’/wóuú’
BUFFALO calf níhoon-óú’u [= yellow calf]
BUFFALO calf, very young biihíhi’
HORSE colt bííyo3óú’u
HORSE red horse bó’oonéét [= it has red fur]
HORSE wild horse/stallion nóhóo (see DK1997:121)
HORSE milk cow níí3ouyoo

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapaho Names for other Native American Tribes

XML File of Arapaho Names for other Native American Tribes, displayed via XSL

English Name Arapaho Name Morphemic Analysis Gloss
Apache tih’ííhiinénno’ tih’iihii-nen-no’ killdeer-person-PLURAL
Apache teebé’eisí3i’ teeb-e’eisi-3i’ cut-hair(in bangs)-they
Apache cóó3o’ coo3-o’ enemy-PLURAL
Arikara kóónooníí3i’ koonoonii-3i’ ???-PLURAL ‘people whose jaws break in pieces’
Assiniboine nihoonéíhteenóotinéíhino’ nihoon-eihtee-nootineihi-no’ yellow-foot-
Assiniboine hitóuunóotinéíhino’ hitouu-nootineihi-no’ begging-Sioux-PLURAL
Blackfoot woo’teeneihtee3i’ woo’teen-eihtee-3i’ black-feet-they
Blood kóówunehééno’ koowunehee-no’ Blood-PLURAL
Caddo tonííbeenénno’ ton-iibee-nen-no’ pierced/hole-nose-person-PLURAL
Cheyenne hítesííno’ hitesii-no’ scarred one-PLURAL
Comanche cóó3o’ coo3-o’ enemy-PLURAL
Cree nóókuhnénno’ nookuh-nen-no’ rabbit-person-PLURAL
Crow hóuunénnó’ houu-nen-no’ crow-person-PLURAL
Flathead kookóee’éí3i’ kookoe-e’ei-3i’ ???-head-they ‘has to do with hairstyle’
Gros Ventre hitóuunénno’ hitouu-nen-no’ begging-person-PLURAL
Hidatsa woonóh’koyéí3i’ woonoh’koyei-3i’ ???-they ‘lodges planted together’
Iowa/Otoe/Missouri wosóuuhinénno’ wosouu-hinen-no’ Otoe/Missouri-person-PLURAL
Kansa anahá [Smithsonian Handbook – sp?]
Kiowa niiciihéíhiinénnó’ niiciiheihii-nen-no’ river-person-PLURAL
Kiowa koh’ówuunénno’ koh’owuu-nen-no’ creek-person-PLURAL
Mandan kóóneeníít [see Arikara]
Navajo cooh’óúkutóó3i’ cooh’oukutoo-3i’ wrap one’s head-they
Osage wosóótiinénno’ wosootii-nen-no’ Osage-person-PLURAL
Osage wosóósiinénno’ wosoosii-nen-no’ Osage-person-PLURAL [Okla]
Pawnee hooxéíhiinénno’ hooxeihii-nen-no’ wolf-person-PLURAL
Plains Apache 3ooxuheinenno’ 3ooxuhei-nen-no’ hammer?-person-PLURAL
Ponca/Omaha howóhoonó’ howohoo-no’ Ponca/Omaha-PLURAL
Pottawatomie no(u)xuwoehi(i)nenno’ no(u)xuwoehi(i)-nen-no’ ???-person-PLURAL
Shoshoni sósoní’i
Shoshoni hiiwoxóowú3i’ hiiwoxoowu-3i’ ???-they ‘people that use grass for lodges’
Sioux nóotinéíhino’
Ute woo’tééneihí3i’ nootineihi-no’ ???-PLURAL ‘cut throats’
Wichita hinásau [Smithsonian Handbook – sp?] woo’teeneihi-3i’ be black-they
Arapahos hinóno’éí-no’
Gros Ventres hitóuu-nén-no’
northern Arapahoans? ho’oonéhee-nén-no’?
southern Arapahoans? noowó3iinéhee-no’
Big Lodge/Wood Lodge/Big Lake People beesóowúu-nén-no’

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapaho Place Names

XML File of Arapaho Place Names, Displayed via XSL

Category Arapaho English gloss of Arapaho Place
common morphemes -booo/bo’o road, trail
common morphemes -hooxeb spring
common morphemes -koh’owu’ stream
common morphemes heet- where…
common morphemes -ho’oooyoo’ rocky area; mountain range
common morphemes -iini’ ‘there is/are…here’
common morphemes -niicie river
common morphemes -niiciihehe’ little river
common morphemes niit- where…
common morphemes -nooxeb spring
common morphemes -notoyoo’ moutain
common morphemes -no’oowu’ house, lodge
common morphemes -okoy lodge/den
common morphemes -oobe’ earth, dirt
common morphemes -oowu’ lodge (forms nouns)
common morphemes -oowu’ water (forms verbs)
common morphemes -oo’oe’ brush
common morphemes -otoyoo’ mountain
common morphemes -ni3esoo’ pass
common morphemes -ni’ec lake
common morphemes tih- when/where…
common morphemes toh- when/where…
common morphemes -uuni’ same as -iini’
common morphemes -’ ’the place where…is’
common morphemes ni’ec lake
common morphemes ni’ec-i’ at the lake
common morphemes booo/bo’o road
common morphemes booo-ne’/bo’o-ne’ at the road
common morphemes ho’oowu’ house
common morphemes ho’oowuu’ at the house
ARKANSAS híí3o-’ow-úutéé’ camp on flat land general
ARKANSAS hí3o-’owú’ flat land general
CANADA 3i’eyoo-no ceremonial or memorial monuments general
CANADA neenkouut-e’ it is marshy general
CANADA nénebííhi’ in the north general
COLORADO hooxeihiinenii beiinese’ Pawnee fort Arapaho Peak
COLORADO hoxeenii-niicie? flint river Arkansas River
COLORADO hoheenii-niicie? Arkansas River
COLORADO hoo’ohee-niicie? [Life of Mrs White Bear] Arkansas River
COLORADO heeyeisoo-no’ toh-’ouu-3i’ where young falcons hang (in the wind) Baker Pass, west of RMNP
COLORADO nookhooseii’iini’ there is sagebrush Ball Park, Grand County
COLORADO nookooheii-koh’owu’ sagebrush creek Ball Park – creek in the area
COLORADO heetoh-so’owu’ where the land is flat Bartholf Park and Flats, RMNP (near Tuxedo Park)
COLORADO heetoh-so’esoo’ where it is flat Bartholf Park and Flats, RMNP (near Tuxedo Park)
COLORADO bih’ihii-ko’owu’ mule deer creek Beaver Creek, near RMNP
COLORADO ni’ec honouute’ the lake which hangs (above the valley) Bierstadt Lake, RMNP
COLORADO wox noho’kuhnee-t where a bear was chased up (the mountain) Bierstadt Moraine area, RMNP
COLORADO boo’-oowu’ red water Big Beaver River, RMNP
COLORADO toonooxuutee’ big meadow Big Meadows, RMNP
COLORADO hiiico’o the pipe Big Thompson River
COLORADO hiicoonoot pipe making Big Thompson River
COLORADO biisee3 tih’ii-kou’uni’ where blue ceremonial paint was gathered Blue River, near Kremmling
COLORADO héétoh-bíí3oonóó’ where it is steep Boulder area
COLORADO híí3einóón níit-bíí3ihí-3i’ hoh’éni’ buffalos where they graze on the mountain [?] Boulder area
COLORADO noowóo3-ííteen Left Hands band [?] Boulder area
COLORADO ce’eiinoonoohoet rawhide dish Boulder Creek, RMNP
COLORADO konook-oo’oe’ thick brush Buckhorn River
COLORADO “Buffalo Mountains” (Toll, p. 22) Buffalo Mountains (Medicine Bow Mts in area of Rawah Wild. Area?)
COLORADO heneecei-3esoo’ buffalo pass Buffalo Pass, between North Park and Laramie Trail
COLORADO heneecei-booo buffalo trail Buffalo Pass, between North Park and Laramie Trail
COLORADO beteesbiit fasting/vision quest Buffalo Pass, between North Park and Laramie Trail
COLORADO “Lake Creek” (Toll, p. 23) Buffalo Pass, Big Lake Creek, lake nearby
COLORADO niiinon the tepee Bullfrog Rock and Sheep Rock, along West Creek, RMNP
COLORADO heneecee tih-tebiini3ee-t the buffalo bull with a broken horn Bullfrog Rock, beneath it, along West Creek, RMNP
COLORADO hebesii tih’ii-woo3ee-3i’ where there are many beavers Cabin Creek, Boulder County, RMNP
COLORADO ho’oowu’ heetou’ where a house is located Cache la Poudre River, Fort Collins area
COLORADO hokooxúú-niiciihéhe’ tipi pole creek [?] Cache la Poudre River, Fort Collins area
COLORADO ce’einox the (game) bag Cache la Poudre River, basin in eastern part of the mountains
COLORADO niiinon the tepee Cascade area, RMNP – mountain southwest of there
COLORADO beteee-t nono’ei the Arapahos danced there Cascade area, RMNP – creek near there
COLORADO houusoo-no’ tih’ii-ceneni-3i’ where young crows are taken down (from the nest) Central City – pass near there (Berthoud Pass?)
COLORADO hiwoxuu huunisoo’ the elks horn Clark’s (Mtn?), RMNP
COLORADO hiwoxuu hookuhu’ee elks head Collegiate Range and Mount Massive
COLORADO koo’ohwuu-niicii-hehe’ little coyote river Colorado River, northernmost fork
COLORADO bes tookooxuusee’ a log lies across (the river) Colorado River, near Grand Lake
COLORADO wox niicii-hehe’ little bear river Colorado River, south (main?) fork
COLORADO hiinoox hoono’uu ??? Crystal Mountain, north of Estes Park
COLORADO cenii3-otoyoo’ entering/inside mountain Deer Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO niinenii-niicie tallow river Denver
COLORADO ho’nookee-nooxeb rock spring Devil’s Washboard area, north of Estes Park
COLORADO nouuteeyoono’ bone pipes Eagle Rock, near Estes Park, and School Section Rocks
COLORADO neeteekoonee-niicii-hehe’ little drowning river Elk River
COLORADO nenees-otoyou’u there are three mountains Estes Cone and Wind River Clifffs, RMNP
COLORADO heet-ko’einoo’ where it is circular Estes Park area
COLORADO cenouut-oobe’ steep land Estes Park area
COLORADO hisei-booo womans trail Estes Park – north area and trail across this area
COLORADO cenee-nohwoot tih-yoo-ni’ where the Sage Chicken dance was held Estes Park – small hill near Stanley Hotel
COLORADO heces-iiico’o little pipe Fall River, RMNP
COLORADO he3eb-booo dogs trail Fall River – trail along this river and over Millner Pass
COLORADO heebe3-booo big trail Flat Top Mtn and trail over this area, RMNP
COLORADO hee3éb teesí’ there on top ? Flat Top Mtn and trail over this area, RMNP
COLORADO nii’eihii 3i’oku-t an eagle sits there Fort Collins, road from there towards Estes Park, beyond “Red Rocks”
COLORADO benii3oonoo’ it is deep or steep Fraser River
COLORADO hó3o’uu níit-ko’ús-i’i stars where they fall to earth [?] Garden of the Gods, Colorado Springs
COLORADO hinenitee toh-nooxeih-t where a (giant) person left tracks Gianttrack Mtn, near RMNP
COLORADO beiines heetoh-kokoyoo’ where there is a square fort Granby, hills to the west, south of Colorado River
COLORADO heebe3-ni’ec big lake Grand Lake
COLORADO beteen-ni’ec holy lake Grand Lake
COLORADO kokuy gun Grand Lake, south point
COLORADO ce’einox the (game) bag Grand Lake area
COLORADO heenii-yoowuu anthills Grays Peak and Torrey’s Peak
COLORADO bonoh’oon-otoyoo’ thunder peak Hallett Peak, RMNP
COLORADO nii’eetei’i tih’ii-kou’uni’-i where white turnips are gathered Harm’s Peak
COLORADO ciitoowuu’ inside (the lodge) Horseshoe Park area, RMNP
COLORADO hooxee hookute’ wolfs canine James Peak and south of there
COLORADO hiwoxuu-koh’owu’ elk creek Joe Wright Creek
COLORADO koo’ohwuu-niicii-hehe’ little coyote creek Kawuneechee Valley, RMNP
COLORADO hiwoxuuhuu-3o’ohcoo pounded elk meat Kawuneechee Valley – area within
COLORADO niitoh-nonouhti- where we race Kawuneechee Valley – area within
COLORADO toh-okooxeee-ni’ where we get tepee poles Kawuneechee Valley – area within
COLORADO heebe3i-boo3etiit big battle Kawuneechee Valley – area within
COLORADO heneecei-booo buffalo trail Laramie Plains
COLORADO níit-kotóus-í’i where they took shelter Larimer County, rock formation along Interstate 25 near Wyoming border
COLORADO hebes-okoy beaver lodge Lily Lake and Lily Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO “beaver lodge mountain” Lily Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO hebes-okoy-otoyoo’. Lily Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO honooxoehebiisi’-iini’ there are bullberries there Little Beaver River, RMNP
COLORADO neniis-otoyou’u there are two mountains Longs Peak and Mt. Meeker
COLORADO 3ee3i’otoyoo’ lumpy mountain Lumpy Ridge, RMNP
COLORADO bih’ihii-koh’owu’ mule deer creek McCreary Hill and Spring, north of Estes Park
COLORADO beniix-otoyou’u bald/bare mountains McHenry’s Peak to Stones Peak – ridge above timberline in RMNP
COLORADO 3ooxone’ at the (womans stone) hammer Medicine Bow Mountains (and River)
COLORADO hooksee3oo tepee liner or protection Medicine Bow Mts, northwest-most hills
COLORADO bei’i’ei-niicii-hehe’ little shell river Michigan Creek, North Park
COLORADO beteesibiit fasting/vision quest Michigan Creek, spur between here and Illinois River (near Walden)
COLORADO neneehii3ei’-otoyoo’ middle mountain Middle Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO bih’ihii-booo mule deer trail Millner Pass, RMNP
COLORADO teiiton-ni’ec calm lake Mills Lake, RMNP
COLORADO bei3e’ee-no heads Mt. Alice and the peak to the west
COLORADO neneb-3i’ei’itei’i they face to the north Mt. Olympus and two other mountains near RMNP
COLORADO nooku-bee3ei-no white owls Mummy Range
COLORADO nenonxootei’i northern bodies Mummy Range, mountains to the north of this range
COLORADO hote’-itee sheeps heart Neota Mtn, near RMNP
COLORADO nii-cii-biicei’i it is never summer there Never Summer Mountains
COLORADO hiineniteen-otoyoo’ person mountain North and East Inlets – mountain between them, RMNP
COLORADO heneecei-booo buffalo trail North Park
COLORADO heneeceen-oowu’ or hii3einoon-oowu’, or heneeceen-okoy or hii3einoon-okoy Buffalo Lodge North Park, mountain on east side, near where Elk River starts
COLORADO hinen toh-3i’okut where a man sits Old Man Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO hoonouhut he warms himself Onahu Creek, RMNP
COLORADO beexookein-okoy mountain lions den Onahu Creek – between here and Timber Creek, RMNP
COLORADO wonoo3ee3i’ hookoh’o’ (newer style) Owl Canyon area, NW of Ft. Collins along US-287
COLORADO hookoh’o’ heetohwoo3ee3i’ (older style) many miller moths Owl Canyon area, NW of Ft. Collins along US-288
COLORADO nihoon-oobe’ yellow ceremonial paint Owl Creek, North Park
COLORADO heey-otoyoo’ long mountain Pikes Peak
COLORADO hite3oun-okoy sandhill cranes lodge Porphyry Peak, west of RMNP
COLORADO biixuut the shirt Prospect Mtn, near RMNP
COLORADO boo’-ho’oooyoo’ red rocky area Red Rocks – area on road from Ft. Collins to Estes Park
COLORADO ni’ec-i’ toh-boo3eti- the lake where we fought Rocky Mountain National Park – location in or near
COLORADO notkonii-booo scouts/warriors trail Rocky Mountain National Park – trail in the area of
COLORADO 3ooxone’ noho’oooyoo’ the hammer mountain range Rocky Mountains
COLORADO bih’ih toh-niibei’i-t where the mule deer sings Saddle Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO noobei-niicie sand river Sand Creek
COLORADO nii-cii-nec-iini’ never wet river [Kroeber – Name-Changing Prayer] Sand Creek
COLORADO nii’eihii-nohuux eagles nest Sawtooth Mtn, west of RMNP
COLORADO niisootoxu-3i’ heetoh-wo’teeneihi-3i’ where seven Utes (were defeated) Sawtooth Mtn, west of there
COLORADO beniis-otoyoo’ hairy (pine-covered) mountain Shadow Mtn, Echo Mtn, and Lookout Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO tih-noo’oeenootee’ ni’ec-i’ where there was a camp around a lake Sheep Mtn, a lake nearby, in RMNP [or Sheep Mtn?]
COLORADO toxu’oo’ husei to’uut sharp womans hammer Signal Mtn, north of Estes Park
COLORADO honooxoen-otoyoo’ wolf mountain Signal Peak, along Cache la Poudre River
COLORADO niinenii-niicie tallow river South Platte River
COLORADO heetoh-xouu’oo’ where it smokes Specimen Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO neniikote’eit neh’eih-t where Bushy Head was killed Steamboat Springs, nearby
COLORADO heneecee tees-noho’kuhnee-t where a buffalo bull was chased up on top (of the mountain) Steep Mountain, RMNP (near Tuxedo Park, later renamed Gianttrack Mountain?)
COLORADO wox-eihtoo bears paw Stones Peak, Mt Julian, and area between them, RMNP
COLORADO wox-se’eihtoo bears foot Stones Peak, Mt Julian, and area between them, RMNP
COLORADO bih’ihii-koh’owu’ mule deer creek Strawberry Creek, near RMNP
COLORADO ce’einox the (game) bag Strawberry Creek area
COLORADO wox-otonou’u bears ears Strawberry Peak and a neighboring one
COLORADO hiwoxuu tih-kootoo’ni-3i’ where elk are trapped Strawberry Peak, south of there
COLORADO hiikono the lungs Table Mountain
COLORADO 3owonooxowoo the (hair) bangs Taylor Peak, RMNP
COLORADO hii3einoon toh-ouuhu-t where a buffalo herd climbed up Thatchtop Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO hee3éb-teesí’ towards the top Thatchtop Mtn, RMNP
COLORADO bonoh’ooo-ni3esoo’ thunder pass Thunder Pass, RMNP
COLORADO tei’yoon-booo childs trail Trail Ridge trail and area, RMNP
COLORADO ti’iinenii cebtiit shooting Apaches Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP – rock formation on edge of meadows
COLORADO ti’iihiinen tih-neh’eee-t where an Apache was killed Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP
COLORADO ti’iihiinen tih-oowo’oh’oee-t where an Apache was shot down (off a rock) Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP
COLORADO hisei tih-noo3ee-t where a woman was left behind Upper Beaver Meadows area, RMNP – between here and Horseshoe Park
COLORADO heet-too-tonoti’ where there are caves Walsenburg – area to the west of
COLORADO heeseise’?? windy Walsenburg – area to the west of
COLORADO woe’teeneihi3i’ niih’eikuhnee-3i’ where Utes were chased away West Creek, RMNP – an open park along the creek
COLORADO toh-co’oo’oe’ where it is brushy White Elk Flat, RMNP
COLORADO yonookoxuu’uunni’ there are willows Willow Creek, Grand County
COLORADO hisei tih’ii-noxouso’on-eit bes where a woman was killed by a log Windy Gap, east of RMNP
COLORADO nih’ohuu-biisee flying bug Woodward Rock, Larimer County
COLORADO héces-niiciihéhe’ little river unknown river, south of the South Platte
EASTERN US héet-óowú’ where water Gulf of Mexico and nearby coastal areas (Louisiana, etc)
EASTERN US bees-niicie big river Mississippi River
EASTERN US co’cooneiteen Mexican/Spanish (bread people) town St. Louis, MO
EASTERN US heet-ko’einoo’ where it is round Washington, DC
IDAHO beneh-tiiteen all may enter(?) Ft. Hall
KANSAS benéet-óowú’ holy water general
MONTANA tebexonoo saw [the tool] Billings
MONTANA woxuu-niicie bear river Billings
MONTANA biinohooo digging stick Hardin
MONTANA bees-niicie big river Yellowstone River
NEBRASKA so’-óóbe’ flat land general area
NEBRASKA hiwoxuu hinii3oon(?) the elks penis Chimney Rock
NEBRASKA beniii-no’oowu’ soldiers house Ft. Robinson
NEBRASKA nook-o’oowu’ white house Ft. Robinson
NEBRASKA nook-oowu’ white water White River
OKLAHOMA cii-wo’óh-nii not wearing shoes Barefoot/Carleton(?)
OKLAHOMA 3oxoohei-koh’ówu’ Plains Apache creek Cache Creek
OKLAHOMA heces hoowóh-’óowú’ small many-houses Calumet
OKLAHOMA hooxéí-niicíí wolf river Canadian River
OKLAHOMA woox-ú’ei-t nookucowoot he has an ugly face ……. Canton
OKLAHOMA henéécei-niicie buffalo bull river Cimarron River
OKLAHOMA céénsib-éít (horse) threw him to the ground Colony
OKLAHOMA kooyéíhei’ít he is pulling something out (such as tipi stakes from the ground) Concho
OKLAHOMA koxtéé-no’óowú’ spotted buildings Darlington
OKLAHOMA be’éíheehíhi’ little red buildings? Darlington
OKLAHOMA bih’ihii-koh’ówu’ deer creek Deer Creek
OKLAHOMA same as Concho El Reno
OKLAHOMA wo’téén-o’óowú’ black house El Reno
OKLAHOMA bo’óowúú red houses Fort Cobb
OKLAHOMA wosei-nooxebei-t it is a wild horse Geary
OKLAHOMA ceeneeteenesoo’ green grass, field (translation from English?) Greenfield
OKLAHOMA nówuu-koh’ówu’ fish creek Kingfisher
OKLAHOMA béteen-hóxtoonó’uu sacred/holy cliffs Medicine Bluffs
OKLAHOMA hebesii-niicii beaver river North Canadian River
OKLAHOMA bo’-óóbe’ red soil Oklahoma (state of)
OKLAHOMA tih-kouuhoe’ee when they show off something? Oklahoma City
OKLAHOMA heetéh-3i’i-éiite’ where it is pointy Oklahoma, location unknown
OKLAHOMA boo’oowu’ flows red Red River
OKLAHOMA niicóoowúú-koh’ówu’ salt creek Salt Fork, of the Arkansas River
OKLAHOMA boo’ooowu’ flows red South Canadian River
OKLAHOMA beescénee-coo’ó[toyóó’] turkey hill Turkey Hills (?)
OKLAHOMA hokooxuuniicii tipi pole river Washita River
OKLAHOMA wó’teen-koo’óh black coyote Watonga
OKLAHOMA or: nóóku cowó’(oo) running rabbit Watonga
SOUTH DAKOTA nookó-owu’ white land general area
SOUTH DAKOTA wox niiinon bears tepee Black Hills
SOUTH DAKOTA wo’teen niiinon black tepee Black Hills
TEXAS beníiinéé-3i’ they stay as a group general area:
UTAH niico’ooowu’ it is salty Great Salt Lake
UTAH niico’ooowu’ it is salty Salt Lake City
UTAH woo’teeneihi- the place where the Utes are whole state
WYOMING nonooco’otoyoo’ white mountain Alkali Butte (far s.e. corner of Reservation)
WYOMING nisice-niicie antelope river Antelope Creek
WYOMING hinono’ei- the place where the Arapahos are Arapahoe
WYOMING teesihcehei-no’oowu’ mounting/jumping on house Arapahoe Rail Depot (no longer existing)
WYOMING beneex-ooku-no’oowu’ big eye house Arapahoe Store (no longer existing)
WYOMING koonootoo’hoe-ne’ at the (ranch with a lock opened with a) key Arapahoe Ranch, Padlock Ranch
WYOMING nouuh-oowu’ swift fox lodge/den Arminto and surrounding area
WYOMING heet-niiseekuu’ where two (Sun Dances) were put up Arminto area – nearby – Lost Cabin
WYOMING koo3couhu’ muddy? Beaver Creek
WYOMING 3eniixo-booo steep road Beaver Rim – the Old Beaver Rim Road
WYOMING kox3i’ over the hill Big Wind (area just n. of Arapahoe)
WYOMING nonookuneesee3ii’ place where grizzly bear clan lived Big Wind (area just n. of Arapahoe)
WYOMING te3ou-nohuux sandhill cranes nest Big Wind River
WYOMING houunenii-noho’oooyoo’ Crow (tribe) mountain range Bighorn Mountains
WYOMING ceeneeteen-otoyoo’ blue mountain Blue Ridge (south of Owl Creek, north end of Reservation)
WYOMING konouuwoo’oe’ shade trees or sweat trees Bonneville
WYOMING hox(w)uusii-niicie box elder river Box Elder Creek
WYOMING heet-bii3oonoo’ where there is a canyon Boysen Canyon (Wind River Canyon)
WYOMING heet-hokouni’ where it is dammed up Boysen Dam
WYOMING same as Ethete Bridgeport
WYOMING hoheisii-niicie crazy woman river Buffalo
WYOMING bei’i’ii-niicie shell river Casper
WYOMING hitesii-no’oowu’ Cheyenne (tribe) house Cheyenne
WYOMING heeni’ei-no’oowu’ long hair (Buffalo Bill)s house Cody
WYOMING teb-iinis broken horn Devil’s Tower
WYOMING wox niiinon bears tepee Devil’s Tower
WYOMING nisice-niicie antelope river Douglas
WYOMING touhoonenii-no’oowu’ cowboy house Dubois
WYOMING niis-onoh’oho’ two boys Dubois
WYOMING woo’teen-otoyoo’ black mountain Elk Mountain
WYOMING konouutosei’ the place where the Shirtless band is Ethete
WYOMING noono’owu’ where the rivers come together (Lower Arapahoe area)
WYOMING beniii-no’oowu’ soldiers house Ft. Fetterman
WYOMING ciiko’oot-oowu’ stingy house Ft. Fetterman
WYOMING beniii-no’oowu’ soldiers house Ft. Laramie
WYOMING wo’teen-no’oowu’ black (soldiers) house Ft. Laramie
WYOMING wo’teen-nih’oo3ou-no’oowu’ black peoples house Ft. Laramie
WYOMING cee’eyei-no’oowu’ distribution house Ft. Washakie
WYOMING 3iikon-ookuhu’ee skull Green River (the town)
WYOMING 3iikonei-niicie skeleton river Green River (the town)
WYOMING heneecee nookuxou’ei-t buffalo bull ??? Greybull River (and town of Greybull)
WYOMING heetoh-noo3eihi-3i’ hokooxuno’ where they were abandoned tipi poles [Note: Horse Thief Canyon, base of, near “Jess Posie’s Place”
WYOMING ni’-ec-i’ at the good water or at the lake Hot Springs (on Wind River Reservation between Ethete and Fort Washakie
WYOMING boo’-oowu’ red water Hudson
WYOMING nihoon-ouute’ yellow land area Kirby Draw, on/near Wind River Reservation
WYOMING hoowoh-oowu’ many houses Lander
WYOMING niit-okooxeeet-iini’ where tepee poles are obtained Laramie
WYOMING hokooxuu-niicii tipi pole river Lodgepole Creek
WYOMING konouuw-oo’oe’ sweat brush Lost Cabin
WYOMING co’cooniiteen Mexican tribe, tribal place Mexican Pass (on Reservation)
WYOMING wo’teen-booo-ne’ hotoonee-no’oowu’ blacktop road store Milford and Milford Store
WYOMING wosoouhone’ the place where the Sock clan is Mill Creek
WYOMING heet-no’owu’ where the rivers come together Muskrat Draw
WYOMING hiixoxouhu’ booo muskrat road Muskrat Draw
WYOMING boo’-otoyouhu’ red hill Nebo
WYOMING coo’otou’uw-ootee’ high trail Nebo
WYOMING ceneit-eetee’ entering area North Forks area, Wind River Reservation
WYOMING bei’i’ei-niicie shell river North Platte River
WYOMING konouuwoo’oe’ shade trees or sweat brush No Wood
WYOMING hecesei-howoh’-oowu’ small town Pavillon
WYOMING woox-c-oo’ it tastes bad Poison Creek
WYOMING boo’-oowu’ red water Popo Agie River
WYOMING ce’i3ee-niicie powder river Powder River
WYOMING heso’oo-booo-ne’ at the railroad Rawlins
WYOMING heet-bo’-hu’tee’ where there is a red hole in the ground Red Canyon (sw of Thermopolis)
WYOMING boo’otoyou’u red mountains Red Hills (just west of springs between Ethete and Fort Washakie)
WYOMING heet-be’-bisiinoo’oo’ where red [water] leaks out Red Springs (w. of Thermopolis)
WYOMING hooxono’oo on the other side of the river Riverton
WYOMING ho’nookee-nooxeb-ine’ at the rock springs Rock Springs
WYOMING siiyoho’ nookei’i white sandstone rocks Rock Springs
WYOMING nookunouhu- where they wear white clothes St. Michael’s Mission
WYOMING heeninouhu-’ where they wear long clothes St. Stephen’s (especially the Mission)
WYOMING beteeeno’oowu’ dancing lodge St. Stephens – area of old dance hall east of there
WYOMING tecenoo the door Saratoga, between here and Encampment along the North Platte River
WYOMING cooo’ the trap Saratoga, eastward of the above location
WYOMING heet-hoc[k?]oootee-t where it [road] crosses the river Seventeen-Mile Crossing (on Reservation)
WYOMING nii3onii-niicie tongue river Sheridan
WYOMING nei’ii-niicie goose river Sheridan – a river near there
WYOMING sosoni’ Shoshone Shoshoni
WYOMING neecee siiyoho’ nookei’i white sandstone rocks (where) chiefs (got drunk) Shoshoni – area to the west where some chiefs got drunk
WYOMING heet-hinowunoo’oo’ where [the water] disappears underground Sinks Canyon
WYOMING cebii passing along? South Fork (of Wind River?, Popo Agie River? Little Wind River?) – on Reservation
WYOMING kooh’-ouute’ split land area Split Rock
WYOMING hohookee-no’oowu’ crazy house State Training School (at Lander)
WYOMING hiinooxuu-niicie crossing river Sweetwater River
WYOMING hohootii-iini’ there are trees (cottonwoods) there Ten Sleep
WYOMING xonouu’oo’ in smokes Thermopolis
WYOMING xook-hooxono’oo through (the mountains) it smokes Thermopolis
WYOMING nii3onii-niicie tongue river Tongue River
WYOMING heneecei-nonii buffalo bulls back fat Tyler
WYOMING biito’owu’ the earth Veedauwoo, Medicine Bow NF
WYOMING heet-3ii-3i’e’eiite’ where it is pointy Washakie Needles
WYOMING nonook-otoyoo’ white mountain White Hills (west of Riverton)
WYOMING wootei-niicie noisy river Wind River
WYOMING niit-iine’etii-no’ where we live Wind River Reservation
WYOMING heet-ihco’oo’ where it (water or land) rises up Yellowstone area
WYOMING hisee3-niicie pine river unknown location in northern Wyoming, north of Lodgepole Creek
WYOMING tih-’eniheih-t cowo’oo when[where] she was lost Swift Runner unknown location near the North Platte River
WYOMING toh-ko’ein-oowuu-hehe’ little river where the water goes in a circle unknown location to the west of the Black Hills
WYOMING ciibeetino tohwoo3ei’i sweat lodges where there are many unknown location to the west of the Black Hills, near Whirlpool Creek
WYOMING House Mountains’ unknown location on N/NE area of the Reservation, or to the N/NE of it
Euro-American ho’oooyoo’ rocky area Haiyaha Lake, RMNP
Euro-American hiii-nec snow water Haynach Lakes, RMNP
Euro-American niisoo-no’ twins Mt. Nisa, RMNP
Euro-American wox bear Mt. Wuh, RMNP
Euro-American nowoo3 left-handed – name of Arapaho chief Left Hand Niwot, CO; Niwot Ridge, CO
Euro-American wo’teen-koo’oh black coyote – name of Arapaho chief Black Coyote Watonga, OK; Watonga Mtn, Lake, Creek, CO
Euro-American niibooot??? song??? – name of Arapaho chief Mt. Neva, CO

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapaho Material Culture Terms

XML File of Arapaho Material Culture Terms, Displayed via XSL

Category Arapaho English Notes Reference
clothing: be’étoo-no headdress deverbal of bee’etee’
clothing: beesceeneyoo-no armlets/armbands K1983:171, DK1997:155
clothing: bee’étee’/béé’etéí’-i headdress see Salz ‘roach’
clothing: bee3iyoo property, clothing < Alonzo: see prayers by Kroeber K1916:108
clothing: béí3e’éé-xo’éyóoó hair grease see Salz ‘ointment’
clothing: béí’i shell gorget
clothing: béií3ooxuu bone necklace Salz Dict
clothing: beteex tanning agent < beteec
clothing: be’kuutoo(?) headdress ‘red stand’ K1916:107
clothing: biihí3-ii diaper powder; buffalo dung diapers
clothing: bii3ee’oux-[w]otoo (??) a kind of leggings DK1997:291
clothing: bii3ensinouxoo (??) a kind of shirt DK1997:291
clothing: bíixót buckskin
clothing: biixo’óh-no mocassin lining < biis-wo’oh-no
clothing: biixuut-ono shirt; dress; clothing
clothing: cecini-nou-wo winter robe
clothing: cééhnoocéí’oo’ it is fringed < ceeh-n-oocei ??-ropelike]
clothing: ceenééteeyóó’ bead
clothing: ceene’eici3oo-no horse ornaments < ceen(?)-e’ei-ci3-ei-
clothing: cee’íbinóotí’ bead ce’
clothing: ceitoo-no earring
clothing: ciitoobiixuut undershirt, inner garment K1916:98
clothing: héétee-wo’ohnóoó-no preshaped mocassins
clothing: hééyooxú’ it is fringed < hee-y-oox
clothing: hehiisí’ohúút-ono soap < hehiis-i’ohu-
clothing: he’iite’iici headband
clothing: híxono’éín bone necklace
clothing: hooté/hootoho sinews, threads
clothing: hou-wo blankets, bedding
clothing: hoyeibi3oo barrette
clothing: ko’eiyoo-no mocassin sole ko’ei-y-oo-‘
clothing: kokoohowoot-ono chief’s headdress, warbonnet
clothing: kootó’ohú’ it is beaded
clothing: koyootee belt
clothing: koyootoo-ho’ belt
clothing: neniiseekuu’ headdress < neniis-eekuu-‘
clothing: néyoo’úút-ono ornaments; cosmetics < nééyoo’úú-
clothing: nii’ehiiho’ bird-embroidered shoes DK1997:291
clothing: nii’eihii-neyoo’uut bird ornament DK1997:289
clothing: nii3heswouh-no arm bands
clothing: niscininouhuu- buckskin < nisice-inouhu-
clothing: noo’oeyookuu’ headdress, hatband < noo’oe-y-ookuu-‘
clothing: tou’cihiit belt; diaper < tou’-ci3ei-
clothing: 3ooxé/3ooxoho glove, mitten
clothing: 3ouxosúuú headdress
clothing: wohooninook thread < wohoon-
clothing: wooxon-o bracelet
clothing: woté’ hat
clothing: wótoo-ho legging
clothing: wotoukuhu-no wrist guards DK1997:155
clothing: wout-ono breechcloth
clothing: wowo’ooniini mask
clothing: woxuuk (?) leglets K1983:171
clothing: wo’ein necklace
clothing: wo’óh-no moccasin
clothing: wo’óhno3oo-no moccasin top
clothing: xoxouhu’ tanning agent
clothing: yeiyo-no’ hairpiece
cooking/eating items: béí’ci3ei-nóoó iron cooking pot
cooking/eating items: bes-nóoó-no tableware < bes-nooo-no
cooking/eating items: cebítee fuel
cooking/eating items: cebt-ou3óoó cross-stick, used to hold things over a fire for example square-hang
cooking/eating items: cebtoo’ooku3oo-no cross-sticks square-strap, attach
cooking/eating items: heebíyoo-no spoon
cooking/eating items: hii-tihii-nou’-u ladle
cooking/eating items: hii-tihii-niinou‘-u ladle
cooking/eating items: (hi)sítee fire
cooking/eating items: hotoo flat rock used for grinding things DK1997:258,341
cooking/eating items: neniisouní’-i forked sticks, used to support cross-sticks
cooking/eating items: niibécohúút-ono canteen < nii-becoh-
cooking/eating items: niis-iici-kuh-u’ collapsible cup niis
cooking/eating items: noosoo’ tinder ???
cooking/eating items: se’-nóoó plate
cooking/eating items: tóúyoo-no cup < tou-y-ei-
cooking/eating items: 3óuhó’yoo-no kettle < boil-thing
cooking/eating items: wooxé/wooxoho knife
implements/tools: bééte’ bow
implements/tools: be’i’io’ flesher bih’-io
implements/tools: bescie’oe-no flesher
implements/tools: bíínohóoó digging stick
implements/tools: biito’óóko’óóx saddle tree < biito’-hooko’oox
implements/tools: cecéhne’éicí-hino halter
implements/tools: cecihookok-no saddle blanket hooko’oox-uno?
implements/tools: ce’e’eino(xo)’onoox round head axe < ce’-e’ei-ho’noox K1916:89
implements/tools: cih’óte’eihoo comb
implements/tools: ciitoxko’neeyoo-no bridle < ciit-oxko’-
implements/tools: cíítoo’oyóó harness
implements/tools: ciiyóo-nó equipment, tools in general
implements/tools: híiicóó-no’ pipe
implements/tools: hínow-un paint
implements/tools: hisíteekuu3oo fire drill K1916:85
implements/tools: hóóko’óóx-ono saddle
implements/tools: hooko’oox-nih’-ohoe saddle pad filler see doll stuffing
implements/tools: hóóxuucihíít-ono cinch, girth < hooxuu-ci3-ei-
implements/tools: hóóxuukuu bellyband, girth for a horse
implements/tools: hoxoxhoo scraper
implements/tools: ho(ho)’(o)nóóx axe
implements/tools: ho’óeet-no paints
implements/tools: ho’oe(e)3oo-no paintbrush
implements/tools: kohyohoee-no glue note: kohyohoee or kohyoho’oe/ kohyohoeno
implements/tools: kokou-bei-ho awl < kokou-bei
implements/tools: kouteso’owoot-ono fly switch < kout-eso’on-
implements/tools: níísooneecihíít-ono hobble for a horse < niis-oonee-ci3ei
implements/tools: niskohoee-no quirt; whip
implements/tools: noho’koskuu3oo-no signal lights see Salz nohokos-/no’kos-
implements/tools: nooceiyoo-no thongs < n(ii)-oocei-
implements/tools: nook-ohoe medicine switch
implements/tools: noonoes-eihoo-no fly switch see comb, etc -eihoo
implements/tools: seenook-uu rope
implements/tools: siisiiy-ono rattle
implements/tools: tebe’einoo(?) saddle without ‘horns’ < teb-e’ei-noo DEV? K1916:89
implements/tools: tónooxóhoé-no auger
implements/tools: to’oxowóoó-no’ medicine ball
implements/tools: to’úút-no hammer
implements/tools: 3eiiyei’ok-ono stirrup < 3eii-
implements/tools: 3oohoe-no flesher
implements/tools: 3ooxe’(?) stone hammer, used to drive tipi pins Hayden 1873:332
implements/tools: woohon-ooku3oo-no splint < woohon (see thread)
implements/tools: woosoo3-ii arrowhead; flint for starting a fire
implements/tools: wooxé/wooxoho knife
implements/tools: hecoxooxe small knife K1916:86
implements/tools: heebetooxe large knife K1916:86
implements/tools: woteiho’yoo-no drumstick; drum? < wo’teiho’yei-
implements/tools: wottoneihii fire starter K1916:86
implements/tools: wo3onesi’-i strap
implements/tools: woxesíít-ono paintbrush
implements/tools: woxusiit-ono paint K1916:108, 117
implements/tools: xou’keeyoo shredder for working hides?
implements/tools: xooxoonei-hihi’ (?) pendants see hang K1983:60
items for transporting/storing things: bei-hoo’ awl case DK1997:155
items for transporting/storing things: cee’ei-n-oo’ bowl
items for transporting/storing things: ce’éiinox bag
items for transporting/storing things: ce’e3en-o bag
items for transporting/storing things: ciit-o3oo-no quiver; gun case < ciit-ho3-oo
items for transporting/storing things: hectoonohúút-ono child’s cradle
items for transporting/storing things: hínowun-ce’eiyoo paint bag < hinow-un + ce’ei-y-oo-‘
items for transporting/storing things: hoo’oee-n-oo’ clay bowl Curtis
items for transporting/storing things: ho’úw-oono3oo-no parfleche bags < ho’uwoo-no3oo
items for transporting/storing things: kokíyo(o?)-no3oot-no powder horn; bullet pouch < kokiyo-no3ee
items for transporting/storing things: niisibinoo-no (?) pointed quiver DK1997:154
items for transporting/storing things: nookohoe-nóoó-no bucket < nookohei
items for transporting/storing things: noneisi (?) bag covering none’eici?? see niise’eici DK1997:377
items for transporting/storing things: touse3oo-no pipe bag < tou-
items for transporting/storing things: touse3oo-no pouch
items for transporting/storing things: wooxo-hoo’ knife case
items for transporting/storing things: wóttonéíhii fire carrier fire starting kit? person who does this?
lodging/household: bééteetósoo’uh(i)t a blanket/buffalo robe with one hundred quill lines on it DK1997:291
lodging/household: be’iitoo-no pillow
lodging/household: besóowú’ wood shelter
lodging/household: biixou-wo fur blankets cihiit (nom); ku3ei- (AI) > kuhuut (nom)
lodging/household: hoxku3-oo’-ohoe-no tipi pins, used to close the front of the tipi
lodging/household: kox(u)k-u3-ohoe-no same K1916:98
lodging/household: hóhku3oo’(o)hóe-no same Salz – lacing pin
lodging/household: kóktee-nou muli-colored blanket
lodging/household: konoon-iitee-’ tipi liner and/or cover? ‘it is open (door)’
lodging/household: kox(u)k-o3-eeyoo-no kindling K1916:88
lodging/household: néécee-nou buffalo robe
lodging/household: neneesootox-ei’i eight-line embroidered/quilled blanket or buffalo robe DK1997:291
lodging/household: níiinon tipi
lodging/household: niisoo’-ouh-t twenty quill lines buffalo robe K1983:29
lodging/household: ni’ox-uu or nio’x-uu lodge decorations
lodging/household: noho’uce’ee-no tipi liner and/or cover
lodging/household: noh’oúúhtoohóee Sun Dance center pole
lodging/household: nonook-ouht white pillow DK1997:291
lodging/household: noo’oee-neyoo3oo-no tipi liner and/or cover < noo’oee-neyoo’uu- decoration?
lodging/household: notoyeic hide
lodging/household: seenook rope that ties tipi poles together at the top
lodging/household: tebe’eibesii stumps of wood < teb-e’ei-bes-ii K1916:89
lodging/household: tecénoo door of tipi
lodging/household: teesi’ niiinone’ top of tipi K1916:99
lodging/household: tonoukuhu3i’ three poles erected to hold up rest of tent < tonouk-uhu inherent passive K1916:98
lodging/household: tóukoohóe brush ‘shade’ or shelter
lodging/household: toyoon (?) dressed skin see heecee-n DK1997:154
lodging/household: 3ííxo’óé-no tipi peg
lodging/household: 3i’eyoo post, monument K1916:100
lodging/household: 3óuuyokóy tipi conical/pointed + tent
lodging/household: woh(u)n-ohoe-no backrest
lodging/household: woh(u)n-o3oo-no backrest
lodging/household: wónotóno’ tipi flaps on the top
religious items: biixónoo-no’ plume used in religious ceremony
religious items: ce’ééku3oo a sacred bundle K1983:23,368
religious items: 3i’eyoo-no pile of stones used as altar; pile of dirt outside sweat lodge
religious items: woh(u)n-ó3oo-no cloth offering, used in Sun Dance and fasting
religious items: wo’sohk (?) sacred bag DK1997:48
toys: bei’iisoo doll see Salz ‘let’s pretend’
toys: bei’iisoo-nih’-ohoe doll stuffing
toys: cééteyéh(i)t marble
toys: hiiníkotíít-ono toy
toys: niitóu(u)3óó flute,whistle
toys: neeníítoo old fashioned indian doll Salz Dict
toys: nenii3ootee-ni-’ basket tray the willow, woven baskets used for dice? Curtis
toys: to’se3oo-no game dice
weapons: bééte’ bow
weapons: beeteyook-uu bowstring
weapons: bíixóó’/ bíixóú’uu lance
weapons: cehéései-nó(h)’onóókee-no’ arrowhead Salz
weapons: ce’eexuu war club, tomahawk
weapons: ce’ee’o3oo(?) club, tomahawk K1916:118
weapons: ciit-o(o)hoe ramrod Hayden 1873:335
weapons: co’ooxuu war club, tomahawk
weapons: hoociihii-no(‘) (?) shield Hayden 1873:336
weapons: hoote/hootoho bowstring, sinew
weapons: noosoo(‘) gun-flint; tinder; a plant used as tinder
weapons: tokookeihi’ shield
weapons: towohoe round club < tow-ohoe
weapons: woosoo3-ii arrowhead
weapons: wooxé/wooxoho knife
weapons: woxookeihi’ shield
weapons: xohwoo(?) spear Hayden 1873:337 ; Schoolcraft 1853:448 Curtis ; Kroeber1983:164 ; Dorsey and Kroeber 1997:338 kooxoyeinoo)

Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in CATV 47 Blog


Reading Traditional Narratives in Arapaho

Reading Traditional Narratives in Arapaho

Traditional Arapaho stories have been published by Zdenek Salzmann (1956) and by Andrew Cowell and Alonzo Moss, Sr. (2005, 2006). These stories have a special grammar different from everyday spoken Arapaho. The differences are as follows:

1) There are special forms for ‘he said,’ ‘they said’ and so forth. The forms are:

heehehk =
s/he said heehehkoni’ = they said
hee3oohok =
s/he he said to him/her/them hee3oohohkoni’ = they said to him/her/them
hee3eihok = the other one(s) said to him/her hee3eihohkoni’ = the other one(s) said to them
2) There is a special prefix used on verbs: he’ih-. This prefix means ‘it is said to have happened…’. Very often, the variant he’ih’ii- occurs. This means ‘it is said to have been going on…’ or ‘it is said to have happened generally/regularly’. Sometimes the prefix also occurs separated from the verb, as he’ih’ini.

3) When this special prefix is used, the verbs have to have person and number forms as if they are NEGATIVE, even though they’re not. Since the things aren’t known to have happened ‘for sure,’ but are only in stories, you can think of them as less ‘positive’ or ‘affirmative’ than in normal language, so this is why the grammar of stories looks a little bit like the grammar of negative sentences in Arapaho.

Normal grammar, negative: hoow-noohob-ee = ‘he doesn’t see her’
Narrative grammar: he’ih-noohob-ee = ‘he saw her, it is said’

Normal grammar, negative: hoow-e’inon-eeno’ = ‘they don’t know him’
Narrative grammar: he’ih-‘e’inon-eeno’ = ‘they knew him, it is said’

4) When stories have a negative, the prefix is cii-, not hoow-:

he’ih-cii-noohob-ee = ‘he didn’t see her, it is said’
he’ih-cii-he’inon-eeno’ = ‘they didn’t know him, it is said’

5) BUT, when people are actually talking in a story (dialogue), the everyday modern language is used (underlined below):

nih-noohow-o’ heehehk = ”I saw him,’ he said.’

6) When there are a sequence of events, the prefix he’ne’- or just ne’- is used, meaning ‘then, next’. When this prefix is used, normal, everyday grammar is used (underlined below):

he’ih-noohob-ee. he’ne’-nihii3-oot tous. = ‘he saw her, it is said. so then he said to her, ‘hello.”

Below is a sample from a traditional Arapaho narrative, illustrating how the system works:

wohéí hé’ih’ii-nííhonookooyéí-no’ héétee3owó3neníteeno’.
well / it is said that they used to run for a long time / the old time indians

it is said that they used to run for a long time

hé’ih’ii-ciiskóóhu-no’ ci’.
it is said that they used to run a long ways / too

tih’íísiinííhi’ hé’ih’ii-ce3kóóhu-no’.
in the old days / it is said that they used to set off running

it is said they ran fast

Here’s another example, from the same story, with sequence prefixes:

howóó núhu’ bíííno:
also / those / chokecherries

núhu’úúno hohóótiinííni bííno hé’ih’ii-cíhiixoén noh hé’ih’íni bíibíí3.
those particular / tree-like/ cherries / it is said he would peel them / and / it is said that / he ate them

hé’ih-‘óótoowkúútii hí’in hitóó3et.
it is said that he swallowed it / that / his saliva

hé’né’-nih’iisííne’étiit céi3ííhi’.
so that’s how he lived / on the way here

Here’s one final example, with dialogue:

“wohéí,” hee3éihók, “nenéénin héétniiteheibé3en.
well / the other one said to him/ you / I will help you

toyóóhowú huut!”
you wait for me / here

hé’né’-ce3kóóhut néhe’ koo’óh.
so then he set off running / this / coyote

hé’né’-cihnó’oxotonéít nóókuo, nóókuo.
and then he brought it back to him over here / a rabbit / a rabbit


Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Short simplified stories

Story #1 Translation.

A coyote saw a woman. He wanted to trick her. He hid under cover. But the woman heard him. She growled like a bear. The coyote ran away.


Koo’ohwuu nih-noohob-ei-t hisei.
A coyote (OBV) saw a woman.
(The -ei- suffix indicates obviative coyote acting on proximate woman)
[The coyote] wanted to trick her.
[The coyote] hid under cover.
‘Oh nehe’ hisei nihniiton-oo-t.
But the woman heard him.
(The -oo- suffix indicates proximate woman acting on obviative coyote)
Nih-niitouuhu-t wootii wox.
She growled like a bear.
Nuhu’ nih-tokohu-ni3.
This coyote fled.


Story #2 Translation

A man saw a coyote. The coyote was injured. The man helped the coyote. He gave the coyote food. He gave [the coyote] water. “Thank you” the coyote said to him. “I will give you power.” He gave the man power. In exchange, he helped the man.


Hinen nih-noohow-oo-t koo’ohwuu.
A man saw a coyote (obv).

Nuhu’ koo’ohwuu nih-‘esiinii-ni3.
The coyote (obv) was injured.

Nehe’ hinen nih-niiteheiw-oo-t.
The man helped [the coyote]

Nih-biin-oo-t bii3wo.
[The man] gave [the coyote] food.

Nih-biin-oo-t nec.
[The man] gave [the coyote] water.

“Hohou” nih-‘ei’towuun-ei-t nuhu’ koo’ohwuu.
“Thank you” the coyote (obv) said to [the man].

“Heet-biin-e3en no’oteihiit.”
“I will give you power.”

Nih-biin-ei-t no’oteihiit.
[The coyote] gave [the man] power.

Hooxohoeniihi’ nih-niiteheib-ei-t nehe’ hinen.
In exchange, [the coyote] helped the man.


Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


“Proximate” and ‘Obviative’ in Arapaho/ “Third” and “Fourth” Person in Arapaho

“Proximate” and ‘Obviative’ in Arapaho/
“Third” and “Fourth” Person in Arapaho

In Arapaho, rather than having only a third person form (‘he/she’) there is also a fourth person form (‘the other one’). Whenever two or more third persons are involved, a speaker has to choose one of them as the more important or ‘proximate’ person, and the others as less important, or ‘obviative’ persons. There are different verb endings for the obviatives:

Singular Plural
3rd person -t -3i’
4th person -ni3 -ni3i
Examples with cebísee- ‘to walk’ and ni’í3ecoo- ‘to be happy’:

ceebíseet = ‘he is walking’
ceebíseení3 = ‘the other one is walking’
nii’í3ecóó3i’ = ‘they are happy’
nii’í3ecooní3i = ‘the other ones are happy’
In addition, the demonstrative ‘this’ has two forms – néhe’ for proximates, núhu’ for obviatives (and inanimate things). Note that the proximate/obviative distinction is only used for animate objects.

So if you’re telling a story about two people, you might end up saying something like ‘this one (main focus) is happy, but the other one is said.’ In Arapaho, this would be:

Néhe’ nii’í3ecoo-t, ‘oh núhu’ teneení3ecoo-ní3.
This (prox) happy-3, but this other(obv) sad-4.
Because of the markers on the verbs, there’s no need to use nouns or pronouns as in English, so in Arapaho narrations, you will often have long strings of just verbs. There’s not a problem tracking who’s doing what, because the proximate/obviative distinctions allow you to keep track of the different folks involved and their relation to each other. Here’s a brief example, with the obviative markings in red and the proximate markings in blue.

Néhe’ nii’í3ecoo-t, ‘oh núhu’ teneení3ecoo-ní3.
This (prox) one is happy, but this other (obv) one is sad.

Núhu’ yiihóo-ní3 hito’óowúúnin, ‘oh néhe’ yiihóó-t bii3hííno’óowúú’.
This other(obv) one is going to his house, but this (prox) one is going to a restaurant.

Beníí3i-t nisíkoc noh niiscíh’ebi-t.
He (prox) is eating cake and drink soft drinks.

Núhu’ beníí3i-ní3 cée3íbino. Bééne-ní3 nec. Niibeetbíí3i-ní3 nisíkoc.
This other (obv) one is eating beans. He (obv) is drinking water. He (obv) wants to eat cake.
Proximate/obviative with Nouns

Nouns change their form to indicate obviative or proximate status:

hinén = man (PROX), hinén(i)nó’ men (PROX)
hinénin = man (OBV), hinén(i)no men (OBV)

hísei = woman (PROX), híseino’ women (PROX)
hísein = woman (OBV), híseino women (OBV)

Here are two examples of sentences with nouns in them:

Néhe’ hísei ceebísee-t, ‘oh núhu’ hinén-in nííhi’kóóhu-ní3.
This woman (prox) is walking, but this other man (obv, less important) is running.

Hísei-no’ nii’í3ecóó-3i’, ‘oh hinén-ino teneení3ecoo-ní3i.
The women (prox) are happy, but the other men (obv) are sad.

Proximate/obviative with adjective/descriptive verbs.

Whenever adjective-like verbs occur, there is agreement between the adjective verb and the noun:

néhe’ bee’éíhi-t he3.
this red-3 dog
‘this red dog’

núhu’ bee’éíhi-ní3 hé3-ebii.
this red-4 dog(obv)
‘this other red dog’

Proximate/obviative with Transitive Verbs

If you have a transitive verb, you only mark the proximate person on the verb. Here’s a sentence with noohow- meaning ‘to see someone’:

hinén nonoohówoo-t hísei-n.
man see-3 woman(obv)

So what does the above sentence mean in Arapaho? What it means is, “a man (prox) sees a woman (obv).” At first, it might not seem clear whether the woman is seeing the man, or the man is seeing the woman. In fact, here’s a very similar sentence in Arapaho:

hinén nonoohobéí-t hísei-n.
man see-3 woman(obv)

This sentence means ‘the woman sees the man.’ As you can see, the order of the words in Arapaho doesn’t have anything to do with the meaning of the sentence (unlike in English). In fact, the only thing that changes from one sentence to the other is that the verb noohow- has a special ending -oo- on it in the first sentence, and a different ending -ei- (which causes the final -w to turn into a -b by the way) on it in the second sentence. What’s happening here is that the little endings -oo- and -ei- are ‘direction of action’ markers. The marker -oo- tells you that the proximate person is doing something to the obviative one, while the marker -ei- tells you that the obviative person is doing something to the proximate one.

hinén nonoohów-oo-t hísei-n.
man see-prox>obv-3 woman(obv)
‘a man sees another woman’

hinén nonoohob-éí-t hísei-n.
man see-prox<obv-3 woman(obv)
'another woman sees a man'

Here are two more examples, this time with an adjective-like descriptive verb thrown in:

nonoohów-oo-t hiinóno’éini-ní3 hísei-n
see-3 Arapaho-4 woman(obv)
‘he sees the Arapaho woman’


nonoohob-éí-t hiinóno’éini-ní3 hísei-n
see-3 Arapaho-4 woman(obv)
‘the Arapaho woman sees him'


nonoohów-oo-t hiinóno’éíni-t hísei-n
see-3 Arapaho-3 woman(obv)
‘the Arapaho sees the woman’


Leave a comment

Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE

%d bloggers like this: