Arapaho Material Culture Terms

XML File of Arapaho Material Culture Terms, Displayed via XSL

Category Arapaho English Notes Reference
clothing: be’étoo-no headdress deverbal of bee’etee’
clothing: beesceeneyoo-no armlets/armbands K1983:171, DK1997:155
clothing: bee’étee’/béé’etéí’-i headdress see Salz ‘roach’
clothing: bee3iyoo property, clothing < Alonzo: see prayers by Kroeber K1916:108
clothing: béí3e’éé-xo’éyóoó hair grease see Salz ‘ointment’
clothing: béí’i shell gorget
clothing: béií3ooxuu bone necklace Salz Dict
clothing: beteex tanning agent < beteec
clothing: be’kuutoo(?) headdress ‘red stand’ K1916:107
clothing: biihí3-ii diaper powder; buffalo dung diapers
clothing: bii3ee’oux-[w]otoo (??) a kind of leggings DK1997:291
clothing: bii3ensinouxoo (??) a kind of shirt DK1997:291
clothing: bíixót buckskin
clothing: biixo’óh-no mocassin lining < biis-wo’oh-no
clothing: biixuut-ono shirt; dress; clothing
clothing: cecini-nou-wo winter robe
clothing: cééhnoocéí’oo’ it is fringed < ceeh-n-oocei ??-ropelike]
clothing: ceenééteeyóó’ bead
clothing: ceene’eici3oo-no horse ornaments < ceen(?)-e’ei-ci3-ei-
clothing: cee’íbinóotí’ bead ce’
clothing: ceitoo-no earring
clothing: ciitoobiixuut undershirt, inner garment K1916:98
clothing: héétee-wo’ohnóoó-no preshaped mocassins
clothing: hééyooxú’ it is fringed < hee-y-oox
clothing: hehiisí’ohúút-ono soap < hehiis-i’ohu-
clothing: he’iite’iici headband
clothing: híxono’éín bone necklace
clothing: hooté/hootoho sinews, threads
clothing: hou-wo blankets, bedding
clothing: hoyeibi3oo barrette
clothing: ko’eiyoo-no mocassin sole ko’ei-y-oo-‘
clothing: kokoohowoot-ono chief’s headdress, warbonnet
clothing: kootó’ohú’ it is beaded
clothing: koyootee belt
clothing: koyootoo-ho’ belt
clothing: neniiseekuu’ headdress < neniis-eekuu-‘
clothing: néyoo’úút-ono ornaments; cosmetics < nééyoo’úú-
clothing: nii’ehiiho’ bird-embroidered shoes DK1997:291
clothing: nii’eihii-neyoo’uut bird ornament DK1997:289
clothing: nii3heswouh-no arm bands
clothing: niscininouhuu- buckskin < nisice-inouhu-
clothing: noo’oeyookuu’ headdress, hatband < noo’oe-y-ookuu-‘
clothing: tou’cihiit belt; diaper < tou’-ci3ei-
clothing: 3ooxé/3ooxoho glove, mitten
clothing: 3ouxosúuú headdress
clothing: wohooninook thread < wohoon-
clothing: wooxon-o bracelet
clothing: woté’ hat
clothing: wótoo-ho legging
clothing: wotoukuhu-no wrist guards DK1997:155
clothing: wout-ono breechcloth
clothing: wowo’ooniini mask
clothing: woxuuk (?) leglets K1983:171
clothing: wo’ein necklace
clothing: wo’óh-no moccasin
clothing: wo’óhno3oo-no moccasin top
clothing: xoxouhu’ tanning agent
clothing: yeiyo-no’ hairpiece
cooking/eating items: béí’ci3ei-nóoó iron cooking pot
cooking/eating items: bes-nóoó-no tableware < bes-nooo-no
cooking/eating items: cebítee fuel
cooking/eating items: cebt-ou3óoó cross-stick, used to hold things over a fire for example square-hang
cooking/eating items: cebtoo’ooku3oo-no cross-sticks square-strap, attach
cooking/eating items: heebíyoo-no spoon
cooking/eating items: hii-tihii-nou’-u ladle
cooking/eating items: hii-tihii-niinou‘-u ladle
cooking/eating items: (hi)sítee fire
cooking/eating items: hotoo flat rock used for grinding things DK1997:258,341
cooking/eating items: neniisouní’-i forked sticks, used to support cross-sticks
cooking/eating items: niibécohúút-ono canteen < nii-becoh-
cooking/eating items: niis-iici-kuh-u’ collapsible cup niis
cooking/eating items: noosoo’ tinder ???
cooking/eating items: se’-nóoó plate
cooking/eating items: tóúyoo-no cup < tou-y-ei-
cooking/eating items: 3óuhó’yoo-no kettle < boil-thing
cooking/eating items: wooxé/wooxoho knife
implements/tools: bééte’ bow
implements/tools: be’i’io’ flesher bih’-io
implements/tools: bescie’oe-no flesher
implements/tools: bíínohóoó digging stick
implements/tools: biito’óóko’óóx saddle tree < biito’-hooko’oox
implements/tools: cecéhne’éicí-hino halter
implements/tools: cecihookok-no saddle blanket hooko’oox-uno?
implements/tools: ce’e’eino(xo)’onoox round head axe < ce’-e’ei-ho’noox K1916:89
implements/tools: cih’óte’eihoo comb
implements/tools: ciitoxko’neeyoo-no bridle < ciit-oxko’-
implements/tools: cíítoo’oyóó harness
implements/tools: ciiyóo-nó equipment, tools in general
implements/tools: híiicóó-no’ pipe
implements/tools: hínow-un paint
implements/tools: hisíteekuu3oo fire drill K1916:85
implements/tools: hóóko’óóx-ono saddle
implements/tools: hooko’oox-nih’-ohoe saddle pad filler see doll stuffing
implements/tools: hóóxuucihíít-ono cinch, girth < hooxuu-ci3-ei-
implements/tools: hóóxuukuu bellyband, girth for a horse
implements/tools: hoxoxhoo scraper
implements/tools: ho(ho)’(o)nóóx axe
implements/tools: ho’óeet-no paints
implements/tools: ho’oe(e)3oo-no paintbrush
implements/tools: kohyohoee-no glue note: kohyohoee or kohyoho’oe/ kohyohoeno
implements/tools: kokou-bei-ho awl < kokou-bei
implements/tools: kouteso’owoot-ono fly switch < kout-eso’on-
implements/tools: níísooneecihíít-ono hobble for a horse < niis-oonee-ci3ei
implements/tools: niskohoee-no quirt; whip
implements/tools: noho’koskuu3oo-no signal lights see Salz nohokos-/no’kos-
implements/tools: nooceiyoo-no thongs < n(ii)-oocei-
implements/tools: nook-ohoe medicine switch
implements/tools: noonoes-eihoo-no fly switch see comb, etc -eihoo
implements/tools: seenook-uu rope
implements/tools: siisiiy-ono rattle
implements/tools: tebe’einoo(?) saddle without ‘horns’ < teb-e’ei-noo DEV? K1916:89
implements/tools: tónooxóhoé-no auger
implements/tools: to’oxowóoó-no’ medicine ball
implements/tools: to’úút-no hammer
implements/tools: 3eiiyei’ok-ono stirrup < 3eii-
implements/tools: 3oohoe-no flesher
implements/tools: 3ooxe’(?) stone hammer, used to drive tipi pins Hayden 1873:332
implements/tools: woohon-ooku3oo-no splint < woohon (see thread)
implements/tools: woosoo3-ii arrowhead; flint for starting a fire
implements/tools: wooxé/wooxoho knife
implements/tools: hecoxooxe small knife K1916:86
implements/tools: heebetooxe large knife K1916:86
implements/tools: woteiho’yoo-no drumstick; drum? < wo’teiho’yei-
implements/tools: wottoneihii fire starter K1916:86
implements/tools: wo3onesi’-i strap
implements/tools: woxesíít-ono paintbrush
implements/tools: woxusiit-ono paint K1916:108, 117
implements/tools: xou’keeyoo shredder for working hides?
implements/tools: xooxoonei-hihi’ (?) pendants see hang K1983:60
items for transporting/storing things: bei-hoo’ awl case DK1997:155
items for transporting/storing things: cee’ei-n-oo’ bowl
items for transporting/storing things: ce’éiinox bag
items for transporting/storing things: ce’e3en-o bag
items for transporting/storing things: ciit-o3oo-no quiver; gun case < ciit-ho3-oo
items for transporting/storing things: hectoonohúút-ono child’s cradle
items for transporting/storing things: hínowun-ce’eiyoo paint bag < hinow-un + ce’ei-y-oo-‘
items for transporting/storing things: hoo’oee-n-oo’ clay bowl Curtis
items for transporting/storing things: ho’úw-oono3oo-no parfleche bags < ho’uwoo-no3oo
items for transporting/storing things: kokíyo(o?)-no3oot-no powder horn; bullet pouch < kokiyo-no3ee
items for transporting/storing things: niisibinoo-no (?) pointed quiver DK1997:154
items for transporting/storing things: nookohoe-nóoó-no bucket < nookohei
items for transporting/storing things: noneisi (?) bag covering none’eici?? see niise’eici DK1997:377
items for transporting/storing things: touse3oo-no pipe bag < tou-
items for transporting/storing things: touse3oo-no pouch
items for transporting/storing things: wooxo-hoo’ knife case
items for transporting/storing things: wóttonéíhii fire carrier fire starting kit? person who does this?
lodging/household: bééteetósoo’uh(i)t a blanket/buffalo robe with one hundred quill lines on it DK1997:291
lodging/household: be’iitoo-no pillow
lodging/household: besóowú’ wood shelter
lodging/household: biixou-wo fur blankets cihiit (nom); ku3ei- (AI) > kuhuut (nom)
lodging/household: hoxku3-oo’-ohoe-no tipi pins, used to close the front of the tipi
lodging/household: kox(u)k-u3-ohoe-no same K1916:98
lodging/household: hóhku3oo’(o)hóe-no same Salz – lacing pin
lodging/household: kóktee-nou muli-colored blanket
lodging/household: konoon-iitee-’ tipi liner and/or cover? ‘it is open (door)’
lodging/household: kox(u)k-o3-eeyoo-no kindling K1916:88
lodging/household: néécee-nou buffalo robe
lodging/household: neneesootox-ei’i eight-line embroidered/quilled blanket or buffalo robe DK1997:291
lodging/household: níiinon tipi
lodging/household: niisoo’-ouh-t twenty quill lines buffalo robe K1983:29
lodging/household: ni’ox-uu or nio’x-uu lodge decorations
lodging/household: noho’uce’ee-no tipi liner and/or cover
lodging/household: noh’oúúhtoohóee Sun Dance center pole
lodging/household: nonook-ouht white pillow DK1997:291
lodging/household: noo’oee-neyoo3oo-no tipi liner and/or cover < noo’oee-neyoo’uu- decoration?
lodging/household: notoyeic hide
lodging/household: seenook rope that ties tipi poles together at the top
lodging/household: tebe’eibesii stumps of wood < teb-e’ei-bes-ii K1916:89
lodging/household: tecénoo door of tipi
lodging/household: teesi’ niiinone’ top of tipi K1916:99
lodging/household: tonoukuhu3i’ three poles erected to hold up rest of tent < tonouk-uhu inherent passive K1916:98
lodging/household: tóukoohóe brush ‘shade’ or shelter
lodging/household: toyoon (?) dressed skin see heecee-n DK1997:154
lodging/household: 3ííxo’óé-no tipi peg
lodging/household: 3i’eyoo post, monument K1916:100
lodging/household: 3óuuyokóy tipi conical/pointed + tent
lodging/household: woh(u)n-ohoe-no backrest
lodging/household: woh(u)n-o3oo-no backrest
lodging/household: wónotóno’ tipi flaps on the top
religious items: biixónoo-no’ plume used in religious ceremony
religious items: ce’ééku3oo a sacred bundle K1983:23,368
religious items: 3i’eyoo-no pile of stones used as altar; pile of dirt outside sweat lodge
religious items: woh(u)n-ó3oo-no cloth offering, used in Sun Dance and fasting
religious items: wo’sohk (?) sacred bag DK1997:48
toys: bei’iisoo doll see Salz ‘let’s pretend’
toys: bei’iisoo-nih’-ohoe doll stuffing
toys: cééteyéh(i)t marble
toys: hiiníkotíít-ono toy
toys: niitóu(u)3óó flute,whistle
toys: neeníítoo old fashioned indian doll Salz Dict
toys: nenii3ootee-ni-’ basket tray the willow, woven baskets used for dice? Curtis
toys: to’se3oo-no game dice
weapons: bééte’ bow
weapons: beeteyook-uu bowstring
weapons: bíixóó’/ bíixóú’uu lance
weapons: cehéései-nó(h)’onóókee-no’ arrowhead Salz
weapons: ce’eexuu war club, tomahawk
weapons: ce’ee’o3oo(?) club, tomahawk K1916:118
weapons: ciit-o(o)hoe ramrod Hayden 1873:335
weapons: co’ooxuu war club, tomahawk
weapons: hoociihii-no(‘) (?) shield Hayden 1873:336
weapons: hoote/hootoho bowstring, sinew
weapons: noosoo(‘) gun-flint; tinder; a plant used as tinder
weapons: tokookeihi’ shield
weapons: towohoe round club < tow-ohoe
weapons: woosoo3-ii arrowhead
weapons: wooxé/wooxoho knife
weapons: woxookeihi’ shield
weapons: xohwoo(?) spear Hayden 1873:337 ; Schoolcraft 1853:448 Curtis ; Kroeber1983:164 ; Dorsey and Kroeber 1997:338 kooxoyeinoo)

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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in CATV 47 Blog


Reading Traditional Narratives in Arapaho

Reading Traditional Narratives in Arapaho

Traditional Arapaho stories have been published by Zdenek Salzmann (1956) and by Andrew Cowell and Alonzo Moss, Sr. (2005, 2006). These stories have a special grammar different from everyday spoken Arapaho. The differences are as follows:

1) There are special forms for ‘he said,’ ‘they said’ and so forth. The forms are:

heehehk =
s/he said heehehkoni’ = they said
hee3oohok =
s/he he said to him/her/them hee3oohohkoni’ = they said to him/her/them
hee3eihok = the other one(s) said to him/her hee3eihohkoni’ = the other one(s) said to them
2) There is a special prefix used on verbs: he’ih-. This prefix means ‘it is said to have happened…’. Very often, the variant he’ih’ii- occurs. This means ‘it is said to have been going on…’ or ‘it is said to have happened generally/regularly’. Sometimes the prefix also occurs separated from the verb, as he’ih’ini.

3) When this special prefix is used, the verbs have to have person and number forms as if they are NEGATIVE, even though they’re not. Since the things aren’t known to have happened ‘for sure,’ but are only in stories, you can think of them as less ‘positive’ or ‘affirmative’ than in normal language, so this is why the grammar of stories looks a little bit like the grammar of negative sentences in Arapaho.

Normal grammar, negative: hoow-noohob-ee = ‘he doesn’t see her’
Narrative grammar: he’ih-noohob-ee = ‘he saw her, it is said’

Normal grammar, negative: hoow-e’inon-eeno’ = ‘they don’t know him’
Narrative grammar: he’ih-‘e’inon-eeno’ = ‘they knew him, it is said’

4) When stories have a negative, the prefix is cii-, not hoow-:

he’ih-cii-noohob-ee = ‘he didn’t see her, it is said’
he’ih-cii-he’inon-eeno’ = ‘they didn’t know him, it is said’

5) BUT, when people are actually talking in a story (dialogue), the everyday modern language is used (underlined below):

nih-noohow-o’ heehehk = ”I saw him,’ he said.’

6) When there are a sequence of events, the prefix he’ne’- or just ne’- is used, meaning ‘then, next’. When this prefix is used, normal, everyday grammar is used (underlined below):

he’ih-noohob-ee. he’ne’-nihii3-oot tous. = ‘he saw her, it is said. so then he said to her, ‘hello.”

Below is a sample from a traditional Arapaho narrative, illustrating how the system works:

wohéí hé’ih’ii-nííhonookooyéí-no’ héétee3owó3neníteeno’.
well / it is said that they used to run for a long time / the old time indians

it is said that they used to run for a long time

hé’ih’ii-ciiskóóhu-no’ ci’.
it is said that they used to run a long ways / too

tih’íísiinííhi’ hé’ih’ii-ce3kóóhu-no’.
in the old days / it is said that they used to set off running

it is said they ran fast

Here’s another example, from the same story, with sequence prefixes:

howóó núhu’ bíííno:
also / those / chokecherries

núhu’úúno hohóótiinííni bííno hé’ih’ii-cíhiixoén noh hé’ih’íni bíibíí3.
those particular / tree-like/ cherries / it is said he would peel them / and / it is said that / he ate them

hé’ih-‘óótoowkúútii hí’in hitóó3et.
it is said that he swallowed it / that / his saliva

hé’né’-nih’iisííne’étiit céi3ííhi’.
so that’s how he lived / on the way here

Here’s one final example, with dialogue:

“wohéí,” hee3éihók, “nenéénin héétniiteheibé3en.
well / the other one said to him/ you / I will help you

toyóóhowú huut!”
you wait for me / here

hé’né’-ce3kóóhut néhe’ koo’óh.
so then he set off running / this / coyote

hé’né’-cihnó’oxotonéít nóókuo, nóókuo.
and then he brought it back to him over here / a rabbit / a rabbit


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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Short simplified stories

Story #1 Translation.

A coyote saw a woman. He wanted to trick her. He hid under cover. But the woman heard him. She growled like a bear. The coyote ran away.


Koo’ohwuu nih-noohob-ei-t hisei.
A coyote (OBV) saw a woman.
(The -ei- suffix indicates obviative coyote acting on proximate woman)
[The coyote] wanted to trick her.
[The coyote] hid under cover.
‘Oh nehe’ hisei nihniiton-oo-t.
But the woman heard him.
(The -oo- suffix indicates proximate woman acting on obviative coyote)
Nih-niitouuhu-t wootii wox.
She growled like a bear.
Nuhu’ nih-tokohu-ni3.
This coyote fled.


Story #2 Translation

A man saw a coyote. The coyote was injured. The man helped the coyote. He gave the coyote food. He gave [the coyote] water. “Thank you” the coyote said to him. “I will give you power.” He gave the man power. In exchange, he helped the man.


Hinen nih-noohow-oo-t koo’ohwuu.
A man saw a coyote (obv).

Nuhu’ koo’ohwuu nih-‘esiinii-ni3.
The coyote (obv) was injured.

Nehe’ hinen nih-niiteheiw-oo-t.
The man helped [the coyote]

Nih-biin-oo-t bii3wo.
[The man] gave [the coyote] food.

Nih-biin-oo-t nec.
[The man] gave [the coyote] water.

“Hohou” nih-‘ei’towuun-ei-t nuhu’ koo’ohwuu.
“Thank you” the coyote (obv) said to [the man].

“Heet-biin-e3en no’oteihiit.”
“I will give you power.”

Nih-biin-ei-t no’oteihiit.
[The coyote] gave [the man] power.

Hooxohoeniihi’ nih-niiteheib-ei-t nehe’ hinen.
In exchange, [the coyote] helped the man.


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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


“Proximate” and ‘Obviative’ in Arapaho/ “Third” and “Fourth” Person in Arapaho

“Proximate” and ‘Obviative’ in Arapaho/
“Third” and “Fourth” Person in Arapaho

In Arapaho, rather than having only a third person form (‘he/she’) there is also a fourth person form (‘the other one’). Whenever two or more third persons are involved, a speaker has to choose one of them as the more important or ‘proximate’ person, and the others as less important, or ‘obviative’ persons. There are different verb endings for the obviatives:

Singular Plural
3rd person -t -3i’
4th person -ni3 -ni3i
Examples with cebísee- ‘to walk’ and ni’í3ecoo- ‘to be happy’:

ceebíseet = ‘he is walking’
ceebíseení3 = ‘the other one is walking’
nii’í3ecóó3i’ = ‘they are happy’
nii’í3ecooní3i = ‘the other ones are happy’
In addition, the demonstrative ‘this’ has two forms – néhe’ for proximates, núhu’ for obviatives (and inanimate things). Note that the proximate/obviative distinction is only used for animate objects.

So if you’re telling a story about two people, you might end up saying something like ‘this one (main focus) is happy, but the other one is said.’ In Arapaho, this would be:

Néhe’ nii’í3ecoo-t, ‘oh núhu’ teneení3ecoo-ní3.
This (prox) happy-3, but this other(obv) sad-4.
Because of the markers on the verbs, there’s no need to use nouns or pronouns as in English, so in Arapaho narrations, you will often have long strings of just verbs. There’s not a problem tracking who’s doing what, because the proximate/obviative distinctions allow you to keep track of the different folks involved and their relation to each other. Here’s a brief example, with the obviative markings in red and the proximate markings in blue.

Néhe’ nii’í3ecoo-t, ‘oh núhu’ teneení3ecoo-ní3.
This (prox) one is happy, but this other (obv) one is sad.

Núhu’ yiihóo-ní3 hito’óowúúnin, ‘oh néhe’ yiihóó-t bii3hííno’óowúú’.
This other(obv) one is going to his house, but this (prox) one is going to a restaurant.

Beníí3i-t nisíkoc noh niiscíh’ebi-t.
He (prox) is eating cake and drink soft drinks.

Núhu’ beníí3i-ní3 cée3íbino. Bééne-ní3 nec. Niibeetbíí3i-ní3 nisíkoc.
This other (obv) one is eating beans. He (obv) is drinking water. He (obv) wants to eat cake.
Proximate/obviative with Nouns

Nouns change their form to indicate obviative or proximate status:

hinén = man (PROX), hinén(i)nó’ men (PROX)
hinénin = man (OBV), hinén(i)no men (OBV)

hísei = woman (PROX), híseino’ women (PROX)
hísein = woman (OBV), híseino women (OBV)

Here are two examples of sentences with nouns in them:

Néhe’ hísei ceebísee-t, ‘oh núhu’ hinén-in nííhi’kóóhu-ní3.
This woman (prox) is walking, but this other man (obv, less important) is running.

Hísei-no’ nii’í3ecóó-3i’, ‘oh hinén-ino teneení3ecoo-ní3i.
The women (prox) are happy, but the other men (obv) are sad.

Proximate/obviative with adjective/descriptive verbs.

Whenever adjective-like verbs occur, there is agreement between the adjective verb and the noun:

néhe’ bee’éíhi-t he3.
this red-3 dog
‘this red dog’

núhu’ bee’éíhi-ní3 hé3-ebii.
this red-4 dog(obv)
‘this other red dog’

Proximate/obviative with Transitive Verbs

If you have a transitive verb, you only mark the proximate person on the verb. Here’s a sentence with noohow- meaning ‘to see someone’:

hinén nonoohówoo-t hísei-n.
man see-3 woman(obv)

So what does the above sentence mean in Arapaho? What it means is, “a man (prox) sees a woman (obv).” At first, it might not seem clear whether the woman is seeing the man, or the man is seeing the woman. In fact, here’s a very similar sentence in Arapaho:

hinén nonoohobéí-t hísei-n.
man see-3 woman(obv)

This sentence means ‘the woman sees the man.’ As you can see, the order of the words in Arapaho doesn’t have anything to do with the meaning of the sentence (unlike in English). In fact, the only thing that changes from one sentence to the other is that the verb noohow- has a special ending -oo- on it in the first sentence, and a different ending -ei- (which causes the final -w to turn into a -b by the way) on it in the second sentence. What’s happening here is that the little endings -oo- and -ei- are ‘direction of action’ markers. The marker -oo- tells you that the proximate person is doing something to the obviative one, while the marker -ei- tells you that the obviative person is doing something to the proximate one.

hinén nonoohów-oo-t hísei-n.
man see-prox>obv-3 woman(obv)
‘a man sees another woman’

hinén nonoohob-éí-t hísei-n.
man see-prox<obv-3 woman(obv)
'another woman sees a man'

Here are two more examples, this time with an adjective-like descriptive verb thrown in:

nonoohów-oo-t hiinóno’éini-ní3 hísei-n
see-3 Arapaho-4 woman(obv)
‘he sees the Arapaho woman’


nonoohob-éí-t hiinóno’éini-ní3 hísei-n
see-3 Arapaho-4 woman(obv)
‘the Arapaho woman sees him'


nonoohów-oo-t hiinóno’éíni-t hísei-n
see-3 Arapaho-3 woman(obv)
‘the Arapaho sees the woman’


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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Male and Female Forms in Arapaho

Male and Female Forms in Arapaho

WORD hello yes no okay, well gosh! ouch! oops! watch out!
M héébe hee hiiko wohéí yeh(éíhoo) ‘o’hó’ wih ‘éíyo’
F tous ‘oo
kos (obsolete)

‘íne ‘íí(heihoo) ‘o’xú’ wúuu ‘óuwéí’
Other Similar Types of Arapaho Expressions (used by both men and women):

néí’ei3héhk = ‘who in the heck does he think he is!?’ or ‘yeah, right, like he’s going to do something about it!’

noníí = ‘oh how cute!’

cih = ‘well, will you look at that!’ or ‘look here!’

toon = ‘okay, fine, whatever’

nonóónokó’ = ‘well, what the heck, we might as well’

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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


One-Hundred Word Arapaho Basic Vocabulary

One-Hundred Word Arapaho Basic Vocabulary

The following list gives one hundred very common Arapaho words which any beginning language learner should try to memorize. Words ending with a dash are either verbs or common prefixes. Other words are nouns or invariable “particle” words. The abbreviations (m) means “man speaking” and (w) means “woman speaking.”

beecí- to snow
béét- want to…
beh’éíhehi’ old man
béí’ci3éí’i money
béne- to drink
betébi old woman
betéee- to dance
béteenéíhi- to be holy (person)
béteeyóó- to be holy (thing)
beténeyóoó one’s body
bííkousíís moon
biin- to give s.o. s.t.
bííto’ówu’ land, earth
bii3íhi- to eat
bii3wo food
bíxoo3- to love s.o.
bóoó road
cebísee- to walk
ceh’é3ih- to listen to s.o., obey them
ceh’é3tii- to listen to s.t., to obey
cííntii- to stop doing s.t.
hee yes (m)
héébe hello (m-m)
heenéti- to speak
heesi- what (statement, as in ‘that’s what I’m doing’)
hééti- indicates the future
héet- where (statement, as in ‘that’s where he lives’)
héétce’nóóhobé3en goodby, I’ll see you again
hééteenew- to respect s.o.
héí’towuun- to say s.t. to s.o.
héntoo- to be located, be at, live, stay
heséíse- to be windy
hesítee- to be hot
hésnéé- to be hungry
he3 dog
he’in- to know s.t.
he’inon- to know s.o.
hínee that
hinenítee person
hinóno’éí Arapaho
hinóno’éíni- to be Arapaho
hinóno’éíti- to speak Arapaho
hííko no
hííne’étii- to live, survive
hiisíís sun
híísi’ day
híí3einóón buffalo
hiiwóonhéhe’ today, right now
hinén man
hísei woman
hi3éíhi- to be good (person)
hí3et- to be good (thing)
hí3oobéí- to be correct, right, to tell the truth
hohóú thank you
hóónoyoohóótowoo watch out for yourself! be careful!
hoosoo- to rain
hoo3ítee- to tell a story
hoo3ítoo story
hoo3ítoon- to tell a story to s.o.
hoowu- not
hóseihóowu’ Sun Dance Lodge, Offerings Lodge
hotíí car; wheel; wagon
howóh’oe wait! (m)
ho’óowu’ house
koo- indicates a question
neetéíhi- to be tired
nehéíc come here!
néhe’ this
ne’éé wait! (w)
nih- indicates the past
nihi’kóóhu- to run
nih’oo3oo White person
nii- indicates a general or habitual situation or event
niibéi- to sing
nííni’i- able to…
niisí3ei- to work
nííteheiw- to help s.o.
nii3ín- to have in one’s possession
níí3oon- to accompany s.o., go with them
ni’í3ecóó- to be happy
nokóóyei- to be thirsty; to fast
nóóhow- to see s.o.
noohóót- to see s.t.
núhu’ this
tecénoo door
téí’yoonéhe’ child
toot- where (question)
tous hello (m-w, w-w)
tousi- what (question)
toyoo3oo- to be cold
3i’óku- to sit
3i’óókuu- to stand
3owó3nenítee Indian
wohéí okay, yes, so, well, then, next, allright (m)
woow already, now
wóxhoox horse
yeh, yehéíhoo gee whiz! (m)
yihóó- to go somewhere
‘íi, ‘íihéíhoo gee whiz! (w)
‘íne okay, yes, so, well, then, next, allright (w)
‘oo yes (w)

The Same List, Arranged by Word Type

Invariable “Particle” Words

hee yes (m)
héébe hello (m-m)
héétce’hóóhobé3en goodby, I’ll see you again later
hííko no
hiiwóonhéhe’ now, today
hínee that
hohóú thank you
hóónoyoohóótowoo watch out for yourself! be careful!
howóh’oe wait! (m)
nehéíc come here!
néhe’ this (animates only)
ne’éé wait! (w)
núhu’ this
tous hello (m-w, w-w)
wohéí okay, yes, so, well, then, next, allright (m)
woow already, now
yeh, yehéíhoo gee whiz! (m)
‘íi, ‘íihéíhoo gee whiz! (w)
‘íne okay, yes, so, well, then, next, allright (w)
‘oo yes (w)

Intransitive Verbs, Inanimate Subject (II Verbs)

beeci- to snow
heséíse- to be windy
hesítee- to be hot
hí3eti- to be good (thing)
hoosóó- to rain
toyoo3óó- to be cold

Intransitive Verbs, Animate Subject (AI Verbs)

béne- to drink
betéee- to dance
béteenéíhi- to be holy
bii3íhi- to eat
cebísee- to walk
ceh’é3tii- to listen to s.t., to obey
cííntii- to stop doing s.t.
heenéti- to speak
héntoo- to be located, be at, live at, stay
hésnéé- to be hungry
hinóno’éíni- to be Arapaho
hinóno’éíti- to speak Arapaho
hííne’étii- to live
hi3éíhi- to be good (person)
hí3oobéí- to be correct, right, to tell the truth
hoo3ítee- to tell a story
neetéíhi- to be tired
níhi’kóóhu- to run
niibéi- to sing
niisí3ei- to work
ni’í3ecoo- to be happy
nokóóyei- to be thirsty
3i’óku- to sit
3i’óókuu- to stand
yihóó- to go somewhere

Animate Nouns

beh’éíhehi’ old man
betébi old woman
bííkousíís moon
he3 dog
hiisíís sun
híí3einóón buffalo, buffalo herd
hinén man
hinenítee person
hísei woman
hotíí car, wheel, wagon
tecénoo door
téí’yoonéhe’ child
nih’óó3oo White person
3owó3nenítee Indian
wóxhoox horse

Inanimate Nouns

béí’ci3éí’i money
beténeyóoó one’s body
bííto’ówu’ land, earth
bíí3wo food
bóoó road
híísi’ day
hoo3ítoo story
hóseihóowu’ Sun Dance Lodge, Offerings Lodge
ho’óowu’ house

Transitive Verbs, Inanimate Object (TI Verbs)

he’ín- to know s.t.
nii3ín- to have in one’s possession
noohóót- to see s.t.

Transitive Verbs, Animate Object (TA Verbs)

biin- to give s.o. s.t.
bíxoo3- to love s.o.
ceh’é3ih- to listen to s.o., obey s.o.
hééteenew- to respect s.o.
héí’towuun- to tell s.o. s.t.
he’ínon- to know s.o.
hoo3ítoon- to tell a story to s.o.
nííteheiw- to help s.o.
níí3oon- to accompany s.o., go with s.o.
nóóhow- to see s.o.


béét- want to…
héet- where (statement, as in ‘that’s where I’m living’)
hééti- indicate future
heesi- what (statement, as in ‘that’s what I’m doing’)
hoowu- not
koo- indicates a question
nih- indicates past time
nii- indicates a general or habitual situation or event
níini’i- able to…
toot- where (makes a question)
tousi- what (makes a question)


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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapaho – Conversation – “How are you feeling”

Arapaho – Conversation – “How are you feeling”

A basic part of many conversations are greetings and “how are you doing.” In this lesson, we’ll learn several useful words and phrases:

tóotousííni what’s happening?
heitóústoo what are you doing? (hiitóústoo = what’s he doing?)
heitootóustoo what are you up to these days? (hiitootóústoo = what’s he up to?)
koonííni’ííni are things OK?
hótou3óú’oubéíh how are you feeling? (hiitou3óú’oubéíh = how does he feel?)

Answers might include:

nííi’ííni things are OK
nii’óú’oubéíhinoo I’m feeling well (nii’óú’oubéíht = he’s feeling well)
heesówobéíhinoo I’m sick (heesówobéíht = he’s sick)
hoowúúni nothing (is happening)
héétwóteekóóhunoo I’m going to town (héétwóteekóóhut = he’s going to town)
neniisí3ei’inoo I’m working (neniisí3ei’it = he’s working)

Exercize: translate the following short Arapaho conversation:
(Céítoon- = visit someone; notónohéíhii = doctor; ‘iihéíhoo = oh gosh!; heetebínouhuu = poor thing!)

A. Tous! Koonííni’ííni?

B. Hííko. Hoowúni’ííni.

A. Tóotousííni?

B. Heesówobéíht neisónoo.

A. ‘iihéíhoo! Heetebínouhuu! Heitóústoo?

B. Héétwóteekóohúno’. Héétcéítoonóóno’ notónohéíhii.

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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapaho – Verbs – Special Auxiliaries

Arapaho – Verbs – Special Auxiliaries

An “auxiliary” verb is a small but very common word (in English) which modifies some other main verb. Examples in English include: can, want to, like to, have to, etc:

I’m eating I can eat

I’m dancing I like to dance

You’re studying You want to study

She’s cooking She has to cook

In Arapaho, you can say the same thing by adding a prefix to any verb you want. We’ll learn just a few of these:

neeyéí3ei-noo I’m reading

nííni’-íneyéí3ei-noo I can study

benii3íhi-noo I’m eating

benéétoh-bii3íhi-noo (or nii-beetoh-bii3ihi-noo)I want to eat

beetéee-noo I’m dancing

nóówoh-betéee-noo I like to dance

You can ask questions and make negations, and make things future or past, just like normal:

koo-hei-béét-bii3íhi Do you want to eat?

hei-hoow-béét-bii3íhi You don’t want to eat

nih’ii-béét-bii3íhi-n You wanted to eat

héét-béétoh-bii3íhi-n You will want to eat

Notice that the auxiliary always goes right before the verb.

Exercizes: List three things that you like to do, three things that you want to do, and three things that you can to.

List three things that you don’t like to do, can’t do, and don’t want to do.

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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapapo – Verbs – Commands

Arapapo – Verbs – Commands
To give a command in Arapaho, you simply use the short form of the verb.
Any endings are dropped:
benii3íhi-noo I’m eating
bii3íhi eat!
neeyéi3éí-t he’s studying
neyéi3éí study!
For TI verbs, -oo is added to the end:
nenéí’oohóót-owoo I’m looking at it
néí’oohóót-oo look at it!
woo3onóh-ow you’re writing it
wo3ónoh-oo write it!
For TA verbs, the endings are as follows:

nenéí’oohow-ún you’re looking at me
néí’oohow-ú look at me!

ceeh’é3ih-ín you’re listening to me
ceh’é3ih-í listen to me!

ceeh’e3íh-oot he’s listening to her
ceh’é3ih-ín listen to her!

If you want to tell someone not to do something, use ciibéh-:

ciibéh-bii3íhi don’t eat!
ciibéh-néí’oohóót-oo don’t look at it !
ciibéh-ceh’é3ih-ín don’t listen to her!

Exercize: translate the following:
1. Eat!
2. Drink!
3. Sleep!
4. Speak Arapaho!
5. See it!
6. Hit it!
7. Look at him!
8. Listen to me!
9. See her!
10. Write it!

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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE


Arapaho – Animate Verbs – Questions and Negations

Arapaho – Animate Verbs – Questions and Negations

To ask a question with animate verbs, you add koo- just like with the inanimate verbs. The verb gets shorter the same as before as well. And you drop the endings on the verb just as before as well. In this case, its the suffixes which mean “I” “you” etc which get dropped. However, they have to be “added back on” at the beginning of the question:

neniisí3ei-noo I am working
koo-né-niisí3ei am I working?

beníi3béé-n you are cooking
koo-he-bíí3bee are you cooking?

heneenéti-t she is talking
koo-heenét is she talking?

To make a sentence negative, you add hoow- just like with inanimate verbs. Again, the verb shortens, and again, the endings are dropped. As above, they are added back on at the beginning:

néí-hoow-niisí3ei I’m not working

héí-hoow-bíí3bee you’re not cooking

hoow-eenét she’s not talking
Exercize: Translate the following into Arapaho

1. you’re not working
2. I’m not cooking
3. is she cooking?
4. are you working?
5. he’s not cooking


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Posted by on April 4, 2013 in ARAPAHO LANGUAGE

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